ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Green Revolution and Social Inequalities in Rural India

in Rural India D N Dhanagare The green revolution has been the dominant orientation for rural development programmes in India for over two decades now. As a strategy it implied the introduction of high yielding varieties, extensive use of farm machinery, energised well-irrigation, use of high doses of fertilisers and pesticides directed at improving farm production. It was optimistically reckoned that from this would emerge lasting solutions to the perpetual problem of rural poverty and fiunger, This paper examines the extensive literature which has accumulated about the green revolu tion with a view to determine thesociety. Has the green revolution SINCE 1967 when the High Yielding Varieties (seeds) Programme (HYVP) was consciously introduced in Indian agriculture, a lot has been written for and against the green revolution. It would, however, be erroneous to equate the green,revolution with HYVP alone. The green revolution has to be understood more as a broader ideology of rural transformation whereas programmes such as HYVP, Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) and the like are specific institutionalised measures for translating the green revolution ideology into practice (Parthasarathy, 1970: 1-8). Even at the risk of appearing to be stating the obvious rather simplistically, it is necessary to emphasise that the green revolution as a package (ideology and programme) is to be defined as "large scale application of modern science and technology to agriculture". The green revolution technology involved extensive use of farm machinery (as labour saving efficient devices), hybrid (high yielding) seeds, energised well irrigation (and lift irrigation), use of high fertiliser doses and pesticides, and the like. In short "extensive and intensive use of improved production technology and high yielding varieties of seeds" has been the essence of the green revolution (CSSC, 1974: 3-9).

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