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Redeeming the University

imperialist government in India. Shinde argues that Phule's rejection of the early nationalists of the late 19th century because they were Brahmins cannot be justified. Phule offered no alternative programme. Secondly, imperialist exploitation could not be justified and supported on the ground that those who opposed the British rulers were conservative and socially undemocratic Phule also failed to recognise that the peasants and masses were the ultimate victims of colonial exploitation. The imperialist machinery was geared to the task of this exploitation. The very British legal system ejected the peasants from their land. In sum, British policies were against all that Phule stood for. Shinde concludes that "His [Phule's] thought reflected the pre-industrial situation and Phule failed to perceive the essential link between the existing property relations and exploitative socio-cultural set up and hence failed to give a viable philosophy to combat the formidable collaboration of the bourgeosie and the feudal classes on the one hand and British imperialism on the other:' Redeeming the University Upendra Baxi Redeeming Higher Education: Essays in Educational Policy by Amrik Singh; Ajanta Publications, Delhi, 1985; Rs 45, pp 229.

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