ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Ecology and Social Movements

Ecology and Social Movements Gail Omvedt IT has become fashionable in India among established Marxists of the big communist parties to characterise ecology movements as 'petty bourgeois'. This kind of stamping has also been done in Europe and North America. But the conception is wrong. Ecology movements from the beginning have had their social base in peasant or farming communities and among tribal peoples. Even in the 'advanced' capitalist countries it has not been middle class vacationers longing for nice scenery but the people who live in the mountains and forests and whose whole materially-based cultural tradition gives them a living relation to the land who have fought the hardest, from German and French farmers opposing nuclear power to American Indians who have fought the devastation of their reservation lands. Middle class intellectuals, joining these movements, have helped to articulate their ideologies, though sometimes giving them a reformist and anti-socialist direction. Factory workers, alienated from the land as from all means of production, have been slower to move on these issues

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