ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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addition to the aims of literacy, numeracy, and functional development of the learner as a worker and a citizen, the NAEP had the aim to raise the learners 'social consciousness' which would include "an awareness of the impediments to development, of laws and government policies, and the need for poor and illiterate to organise themselves in pursuance of their legitimate interests and for group action" (Anil Bordia, p 64). An example of how the aim of raising the learners' social awareness might be accomplished can be seen in Naya Kadam, a literacy primer designed and published by the Directorate of Adult Education, It portrays the rise of concern among slum-dwellers regarding their living conditions, ultimately finding expression in a letter they collectively write to the municipal chairman. This example suggests that despite the high-flown language of radical social change that was used in policy statements, the core curriculum of the programme was to persuade the exploited people to believe in the system and in the means or participation that the system projects as legitimate. Of course, one can argue that a programme designed to be implemented through a variety of agencies cannot be monolithic, and indeed, one can find evidence to say that the NAEP grants have helped a few voluntary groups to pursue a curriculum which does not stop at writing a letter to the municipality.

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