ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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An Experiment in Growth with Social Justice-Thoughts on the 1970 Cuban Harvest

of economic and strategic strength. But the other goals stress social justice. One goal is economic equality. This is expressed in a relative (although not complete, yet) equalising of wages, and an even more complete equalisation of consumption levels (through rationing, queueing and provision of free services). Equalisation of status is also sought. Other goals relate to work experiences. Over-specialisation is shunned, and individual material incentives are opposed as leading to an anti-social outlook. Volunteer work is valued as education, as well as a source of labour. Faced with this set of objectives, Cuban planners make decisions which sometimes are distinct from those which would arise from attempts only to maximise material production

Urban Development with Social Justice

When Edwin Lutyens was commissioned to build New Delhi in 1912, Herbert Baker, one of his associates, wrote to him: "It is really a great event in the history of the world and of architecture, that rulers should have the strength and sense to do the right thing. It would only be possible now under a despotism

Wanted in India A Relevant Radicalism

countered' on another front. Unexpectedly she proposed a series of economic reforms to the party meeting then in session

Agricultural Growth with Social Justice in Overpopulated Countries

in Overpopulated Countries V M Dandekar The problem of achieving agricultural growth with social justice is especially complicated in over- populated and underdeveloped countries, First, because non-agricultural capital is also too meagre to offer an alternative source of employment. And secondly, because capital in agriculture and in its infrastructure is itself inadequate to support growth and further accumulation.

Economic Growth, Social Justice and Political Stability

ECONOMIC growth and social justice cannot be spoken of in universal, lime- less terms. In fact, we cannot legitimately confound the relationship as it existed between these two variables, for example in England at the period pf her greatest growth, with that which prevails in India today. In England, industrialisation took place initially in a context where 'pauperism' was sought to be dealt with in its own terms

Green Revolution and Agricultural Labourers

The New Orthodoxy IT lias become part of the new orthodoxy in official circles in India that the only feasible as well as the surest way of improving the economic conditions of the weaker sections of the rural population (like agricultural labourers) is to encourage faster agricultural growth through subsidisation of the chemical- biological breakthrough in production and through the promotion of agrarian capitalism in the countryside. Let the enterprising capitalist fanners fatten themselves and then the agricultural labourers can thrive on , the bigger crumbs off their table: this, in effect, is the New Agricultural Strategy that has dominated the Government agricultural policy in the 1960s. Confidence in the essential soundness of this policy has been nurtured by the glowing accounts by visiting foreign friends about the all-round prosperity they have seen while driving through their favourite Punjab villages, and by occasional Government or semi-Government reports about the high cash wage rates that the agricultural labourers supposedly demand and get nowadays. The only major concern seems to be that the Green Revolution is not spreading at a fast enough rate to paddy agriculture; but there too it is only a matter of time before some Rice Research Institute somewhere, working overtime on Rockefeller Foundation patronage, hits on exactly the right strains of high-yielding rice suited to the soil-climate complex of the paddy regions in India.

Student Discontent and Educated Unemployment

COMMONPLACES are frequently worth repeating. A commonplace, social scientists should occasionally be remind- ed of, is that their explanations of events determine the kinds of policy considered relevant to bring about changes in similar future events. By rejecting one level of explanation, such as behaviour based on fairly immediate self-interest- ed motivations, and replacing it by another, such as the determinative influence of child-rearing practices in later adult behaviour, the social scientist implies, if not insists, that policies to alter behaviour in some desired way can be effective only if they treat that level Indeed, the comparative inattention by relevant policymakers to the findings of social scientists, who work primarily within an area studies frame- "That much of the Indian unrest is due to lack of remunerative employment for the educated middle classes and to the pressure an the land of the uneducated masses is a truth so widely recognised that a mere reference to it, without supporting arguments, suffices,. ." Arthur Mayhew, "The Education of India''

Unemployment in India in Perspective

UNEMPLOYMENT The question naturally arises as to what is the number of unemployed persons in the country. Until recently, the Planning Commission used to provide estimates of this number. The term "backlog of unemployment", coined by the Commission initially to reckon the number of additional jobs required to be created during the Second Plan to eradicate unemployment within ten years (the optimistic goal announced in the Parliament during ' 1954-55), has become the focal point of many studies; and a large number of estimates for States (and even districts) are tossed about rather loosely. The Planning Commission's exercises on the subject were, however, restricted to making national estimates. According to the various Plan documents, the number of resources, it could arrange for transfers of incoimr through a system of unemployment insurance and other measures of social welfare. Such transfers of income do occur informally on a limited scale when the better-off persons in the villages and towns try to assist their needy neighbours or relatives. However, the traditional mechanism has gradually become clogged up and one would prefer an impersonal, institutional system which would obviate the personal obligations and the scope for 'exploita. tion' inherent in even humanitarian actions in small communities.
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