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Muslim Educational Backwardness

Muslim Educational Backwardness I P Desai IMTIAZ AHMED (September 5) has done well in raisins the plane of explanation for, and diagnosis of the educational backwardness and under- represenration of the Muslims. Muslims will have to think on the lines suggested by him even if no other communities existed or even if they existed but power was in the hands of the Muslims as in Pakistan or Bangladesh.

Accounting of Nuclear Power

Accounting of Nuclear Power Basudeb Sen RECENT literature on energy economics in India does not yet appear to have seriously questioned the relative neglect of the potential role of coal in the national energy .sector and -economic development. Deb Kumar Bose's paper on "Accounting of Nuclear Power" (EPW, August 8) is, in this context, a significant and welcome contribution. However, in arguing for the case of coal, it seems desirable to avoid points which might generate debates over such issues as are not essentially relevant and divert attention from the case for coal proper. In view of the above, the following observations on Bose's article appear to be in order.

How to Destabilise the Countryside

D Narasimha Reddy ROBERT WADE deserves to he thanked for drawing our attention to the senseless technology transfer in the form of rice-paddy 'transplanting machines' and 'combine-harvesters' (EPW, August 15). T would like to bring to notice an equally disastrous technology "transfer in the case of, again, rice paddy cultivation

Measurement of Poverty and Undernutrition

biased), two sets of estimates have been computed separately using gross capital formation as well as net capital formation, THE RESULTS The various combinations of functional forms with different gestation lags, with and without stable regression co-efficients tor each sector were tried. The estimated regression equations of a specification of investment given by equation (7), worked out using gross capital formation as function of gross value added at 1970-71 prices with appropriate gestation lags are given in Table 3. For agriculture sector an appropriate variable was used to adjust the effect of fluctuations due to weather etc. The regression fit is not insignificant for most of the sectors, viz, agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing, mining and quarrying, electricity, etc, other transports, communication, trade, etc, banking and insurance, real estates, etc and public administration, etc.

Agricultural Labourers and Poverty-A Comment

Agricultural Labourers and Poverty A Comment K N Ninan KERALA has made remarkable progress in certain sectors of its economy but this has led to no perceptible improvement in the living conditions of agricultural labourers or to a reduction in poverty. This is the common refrain of the article by Joan P Mencher ('The Lessons and Non- Lessons of Kerala : Agricultural Labourers and Poverty', EPW, Special Number, 1980). While it is not my intention to controvert the statements and conclusions reached by Mencher, the issues thrown up by her ought to be placed in a proper perspective lest they give rise to misinterpretations. The author seeks an answer to a dynamic question of whether living conditions of agricultural labourers have improved through a one-point static analysis and also rushes to generalisations overlooking the limitations of her sample and analysis.

Commercialisation of Agriculture-A Reply

is one reason, among others, why there exist 'overnourished' persons even in the lowest expenditure group (see VKR V Rao, EPW, July 11-18). Let me repeat once again that heterogeneity in mean requirement

On Measuring Incidence of Undernutrition-What Is a Consumer Unit

model does stress the importance of On Measuring Incidence of Undernutrition intra variation but says nothing about body-weight (or the "inter-action beWhat Is a Consumer Unit? tween genotype and environment'', which Sukhatme has brought into the N Krishnaji discussion for the first time in his pre I AM grateful to P V Sukhatme for his reply (EFW, June 6) to my comments (EPW, May 30) on his procedure for estimating the incidence of undernutrition from a given distribution of intakes. In my note I raised two different issues: one relating to the cutoff point and the other to the procedure for conversion of persons or households into standard consumer units.

How Poor Are We

THERE was a kind of 'jugalbundi' programme in economics at Pune the other day. It happened like this. When V M Dandekar delivered his Kale Memorial Lecture recently, one of the main critics to whom he was replying, P V Sukhatme, was present. It was suggested by a number of interested persons at the conclusion of that Lecture that Sukhatme should give his reply in a similar academic forum. This was agreed to and a discussion was organised at the Indian Institute of Education. Attended by a large number of students and researchers in the fields of economics, statistics, biometry and various other disciplines, it became an academic event. There was keen interest in listening to both themain participants. As A K Kamath who was in the Chair put it at the end, the debate remained inconclusive, and may perhaps remain so for quite some time. Dandekar's statement has already been published in these columns (July 25, 1981). Sukhatme's reply (August 8, 1981) essentially does not go much beyond what he had stated in 1978 ("Assessment of Adequacy of Diets at Different Income

Measurement of Poverty-A Note

Measurement of Poverty A Note V K R V Rao I AM grateful to V M Dandekar for resurrecting the paper I had presented at the International Statistical Conference in 1977 in the course of his Kale Memorial Lecture on 'Measurement of Poverty' published in the July 25.

Innumeracy and Economic Behaviour-A Comment

enough not to permit the thought of the future to make it even more unbearable. The only escape from 'grinding poverty' and degradation is in drink' and 'dance', which apart from bringing some joy, help to regenerate the spirit of the community, and create a sense of oneness.

lunumeracy and Economic Behaviour

August 22, 1981 from that range that is indeterminate. Choice from that range on the basis of the relative prices could be at least as good as or better than choice from that range on the basis of previous preference structures.

Health for All A Reaffirmation

Health for All: A Reaffirmation ON behalf of the ICSSR/ICMR Study Group on "Health for All: An Alternative Strategy" I would like to thank D Banerji for bringing out several aspects of our Report, both in agreement and dissent, and thus helping to further the national debate on this document ('Treating the Symptoms'', June


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