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India-China Border

India-China Border IN his article 'India-China Border: A Review and Critique' (EPW, May 15, 1982), Parshotam Mehra refers to the concluding remarks in my paper 'Distortions in the History of the Sino- Indian Frontiers

Population Scene after 1981 Census

Population Scene after 1981 Census S Mukerji 'INDIAN Population Scene after 1981 Census, A Perspective', by Pravin Visaria and Leela Visaria (Special Number 1981, Volume XVI. Nos 44, 45, 46) is of great interest for the Demographers; and perhaps planners also can gain valuable guidelines from this informative article.

Company Meeting-The Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited-Chairman s Statement

The Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited Chairman's Statement Disturbing signs 7. Whilst the country's economic performance was thus gratifying, disturbing signs of change have begun to appear in the current year interpreted by industry and some economists as the beginnings of a deepening recession and by Government as merely a process of adjustment between demand and improved supply with no recessionary implication. Whatever the respective soundness of these two points of view, there is no doubt that, talcing advantage of the greatly liberalised import rules, such large quantities of some products including soda ash, aluminium, polyester and special steels were imported at such unfairly low prices as to create a glut in the market and compel Indian producers of the same products drastically to reduce production or even to close down their factories. It is natural that producers who can no longer sell their products or can do so only at a heavy loss should consider that, at least in their business, a state of recession prevails.

Agricultural Labourers and Poverty

Agricultural Labourers and Poverty K N Ninan JOAN MENCHER'S remarks (January 2-9) in response to my comments (September 19, 1981) on her article "Lessons and Non-Lessons of Kerala: Agricultural Labourers and Poverty" She accuses me of being oblivious of the context in which she wrote her paper, No, certainly I am not. But in the process of countering the praise showered on the Kerala model of development by Gwatkin and company, .Mencher swings the pendulum to the other extreme. Mencher charges me with hot having produced a single fact to warrant my less pessimistic assessment of the Kerala situation. In other words, we arc to accept her view that the situation of Kerala agricultural labourers has not only not improved, but has actually deteriorated considerably. To answer this as well as some of her other observations, let us discuss the following:

Financial Resources for Sixth Plan

Financial Resources for Sixth Plan G Thimmaiah IN their paper (October 3, 1981, pp 1619-1623), D R Gupta and Ram N Lal have presented the rationale for the Planning Commission's estimates of financial resources for the Sixth Plan (1980-85), They have also attempted to answer the criticisms levelled against the estimates (without, of course, specifying the critics). The purpose of this note is to show the unrealism of some of their arguments and also the methods which they report to have been used to estimate the financial resources for the Sixth Plan.

Patterns of Regional Development in UP

 paper Robotnik. LFEE, op cit 22 The Guardian, August 16, 1980, 23 See, Rethal, Zobn, "Intellectual and Manual Labour", MacMillan Press 1978; Bettleheim, Charles, 'Economic Calculation and Forms of Property'', Routledge.

Estimates of Unreported Economy in India

Estimates of Unreported Economy in India J C Sandesara I PROPOSE to deal with Gupta and Gupta's reply1 to my comments2 on their paper3 in. two ways. I first take up their reactions to my comments, and then reiterate the significant points of my comments, which have not been attended to and finally consider the new data that have been introduced in their reply.

IMF Loan

Sanjaya Baru P R BRAHMANANDA'S reply (May 8) to my review of his monograph on the I M F Loan (March 27) is both provocative and amusing. In the first instance Brahmananda has replied in haste so that he has not only misread, and, therefore misrepresented, my points of criticism, hut he has also misled the leader once again which forces me to question again his claim to objectivity in this entire discussion. Brahmananda provokes and amuses also because he more often refutes my arguments with rhetorical questions than with hard tacts. Let me explain.

Some Nutritional Puzzles

Some Nutritional Puzzles C Asok Madhav Kulkarni ESTIMATES of the incidence of under- nutritional poverty are needed if one wants to use nutritional criteria for determining food production and distribution policy. Also, these estimates are useful to illustrate the food problem and its relative importance with respect to other related problems. Several studies have appeared in the last decade dealing with the incidence of poverty based on undernutrition. Noteworthy among these studies are those of (1) V M Dandekar and N Rath [1971] and P V Sukhatme [1978]. Dandekar and Rath in their well known study of 'Poverty in India' report that so massive is the scale of-poverty that about 40 per cent of the rural and 50 per cent of the urban population are not able to meet even their minimum energy needs to stay healthy and active. However, P V Sukhatme has pointed out that the above authors have misused the meaning of 'energy requirements. In particular, according to Sukhatme, the authors have mistaken the average energy need of an individual for the minimum needs ignoring the fact that energy needs vary between as well as within individuals over time even of the same age-sex group. Taking into consideration these variations and by making the best use of the available data, Sukhatme estimates the incidence to be 15 per cent in rural and 25 per cent in urban areas and that too on a conservative basis. However, V K R V Rao [1981] by making use of NSS data finds some Nutritional Puzzles' due to religiously accepting the figure for cut-off point used by Sukhatme. In this note an attempt is made to find out the root cause of these nutritional 'puzzles' while .simultaneously diseussing related matters in brief.

Racial View of Underdevelopment

stacked up in the cellar or in gold or silver but are used routinely to conduct daily normal transactions. It is an indispensable 'input' into business operations of many individuals and corporations in India.

Estimates of Unreported Economy in India-A Reply

Estimates of Unreported Economy in India Poonam Gupta Sanjeev Gupta WE had in our paper [Gupta and Gupta, (1982)] presented estimates of the unofficial economy in India on a yearly basis for the period 1967 to 1978. For this purpose, we employed a technique suggested by Feigc [1979], that has been used to determine the size of the unreported economy in many developed countries including USA and Canada. The results had shown that the unreported activity as a proportion of official GNP has grown from 9.5 per cent in 1967 to nearly 49 per cent by 1978. In his comment, Sandesara [1982] argues that our estimates are on the high side. The purpose of this reply is to show that the theoretical basis of Sandesara's criticism is weak and his methodology inappropriate. Further, his analysis indicates a lack of understanding of the functioning of the unofficial economy. In the next section, we briefly summarise Sande- sara's analysis mainly to highlight its shortcomings. The last section gives the estimates of total economic activity (consisting of both official and unofficial) in India prepared by other researchers which point to the . fact that our estimates of unofficial economy are by no means over estimates.

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