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On the Mother and Child in India

October 19, 1985 boys in the Kohi chak as herdsmen seem noticeable!' "Lambardar's dues (village security) are a help, but a small one, and the social habits engendered by possession of the dignity are more than a counterbalance to the income thus obtained." (See Replies to Inquiries to the Commission, op cit.) 75 "The canal irrigation, at the style in which it has been going on here for many years past, would, I believe, ruin any land in time. It is of no use to say that the people are to blame for flooding their land so; their reply is cogent, we must do so to sustain the heavy government demand. The inelasticity, too, of the canal water rent is against them." "if they do not have sufficient discretion to prevent a far distant but surely coming destruction of powers by a moderate use of the immense power of irrigation from canals, that responsibility is with the government. The remedy is simple, allow only moderate irrigation and assess accordingly!' (See Replies to Inquiries to the Commission, op cit.) 76 "The government demand is inelastic and we have failed to teach the people as yet to prevent the strain in bad years by thrift in good reasons. But the adjustment is generally accomplished though in a costly and clumsy manner. They moneylender gives help in bad seasons and is repaid in good, the greater cost is found in his exorbitant interest." "The 'middleman class' is numerous, it is favoured by intelligence and social custom. And this brings us to what perhaps is not the greatest cause of indebtedness strictly speaking, but the greatest cause of increase of indebtedness, viz, the power of the moneylender over the Zamin- dar.'' (See Replies to Inquiries to the Commission, op cit.) 77 "The pressure of population is felt more directly here [the tenant at will] than any other class. A family of Strong men, or having active women may do well, but whenever the non-producing part of the house becomes large, distress is sure to follow. The mali of Rathdaneh gets together in one way or another a pretty large income, but the large quantity of food requisite to keep his seventeen people going makes it a hard matter to keep out of debt" "Probably by the time the boys come to working age, they will find their earnings embarrassed with considerable debt. The limit, however, is not far off, when the moneylender ceases to give credit, the house breaks up and the men scatter to earn their living by hiring themselves out." (See Replies to Inquiries to the Conunission, op cit.) 78 The Deccan Riots Commission Report, 1875. See also Amrita Rangasami, 'The McAlpin Capers', Economic and Political Weekly, September 1, 1984.

Theory of Pricing in Socialist Countries

spread family planning acceptance which resulted in fertility control in that country was made possible, along with other factors, by the strong incentives and disincentives introduced by the government at the time when the parents started perceiving the benefits of a small family.2 On the basis of the foregoing argument one may refute Gopalan's method of comparing states and his conclusion that reduction in the number of children does not strikingly improve the nutritional status of the children. Further, differences in the food habits of the people of different states make comparison of the magnitude of malnutrition between states misleading. An increase in real income in the lower strata of society may not alter the food habits of the people but may only improve their dietary intake. One can also expect differentials across the country in household priority towards food, clothing and education with an increase in real income. In view of these diversities, the effect of reduction in the number of children on the incidence of child malnutrition could be explained only within a state over a period of time if significant reduction in the family size has taken place.

Case for Injectible Contraceptives

Case for Injectible Contraceptives? Sujit K Das Pijus Kanti Sarkar IRIS KAPIL's advocacy of the "Case for Injectible Contraceptives" (EPW, May 11) for Indian women and her opposition to Padma Prakash's position on Depoprovera (EPW, December 8,1984) calls for a rejoinder, Kapil may have unwittingly ventured to tread on risky territory when, in order to build up her case for injectible contraceptives (IC), she puts forward the premise that "most people in India would agree that a well planned, well managed family planning programme is essential to the nation's socio-economic development" Who are these 'most peopled Our teaming millions? If sa, why don't they practise It and speed up socio-economic development? They do not, because, according to Kapil, the safest, most reliable, most convenient contraceptive, the IC, is not available to them.

Non-Party Groups and Their Dependence on Foreign Money

September 28, 1985 Sardari revolt 1889, etc. 13 There was a decrease of population in every police post in the permanently settled part of the district due mainly to migration to the Western Dooars. Pat gram alone had a decrease of 5.28 per cent, cf J F Gruning, op cit, p 32.

Theory of Pricing in Socialist Countries

Theory of Pricing in Socialist Countries Jaya Mehta A GLANCE at my paper (February 23) would have revealed the motivation clearly enough. It was never my intention, as B Debroy (BD) suggests (August 31) it ought to have been, to compile the most extensive index of names possible. While he gratuitously drops a long list of names, he mostly fails to relate these to any points of substance made by these authors and not included in my paper. In his occasional attempts in this direction, he betrays a considerable lack of acquaintance with the subject matter at hand as well as the contents of my paper. This is clear from the following.

Theory of Pricing in Socialist Countries

ment in agriculture is much higher than the terminal year investment in agriculture sec- ton In absence of pipeline investment and under the assumption of uniform use of investment expenditure during gestation period (as done in Sixth TN) these figures appear to be inconsistent to each other. Inconsistency is also reflected when structure of total plan investment is compared to that of the base year (1979-80) and terminal year (1984-85). Because of ad hoc method of using adjustment factors for different sectors in the plan periods the total plan investment is also inconsistent with growth targets in Sixth Plan. As to the pipeline investment Sixth TN shows (see Table 1) that no investment is required for capacity increase in mining and electricity sectors during Sixth Plan period, the whole of plan investment being meant for Seventh and Eighth Plans. This is incomprehensible as there are a number of projects pertaining to these sectors which were started during Fifth Plan period and committed to be finished during Sixth Plan period. By our method, we find that about 73 per cent and 41 percent of the total plan investment would be required for capacity creation in mining and electricity sectors respectively during Sixth Plan period.

Theory of Pricing in Socialist Countries

Theory of Pricing in Socialist Countries B Debroy THE theory of pricing in socialist countries is an important enough area and any contribution towards understanding price for- mation in these countries would normally have been welcome. Unfortunately, the intention of Jaya Mehta's recent paper is not at all clear.1 It cannot be taken as a description of methods of price formation in the socialist countries, since no such description is attempted. It cannot be taken to be a survey of the literature on pricing in socialist countries, since an inadequate familiarity with the literature is exhibited. There is no reference to Bettelheim's excellent survey of the debate on pricing in socialist countries, nor to Tarnovsky's illuminating account of actual methods of price formation in the CMEA countries.2 Nor can the paper be regarded as a theoretical study which brings together under an integrated framework the different systems of pricing adopted and discussed in the socialist countries. One looks for such an integrated framework in vain.

Black Money and Effectiveness of Monetary Policy

Black Money and Effectiveness of Monetary Policy V Pandit K Sundaram IN their latest communication on the question of black money and the effectiveness of monetary policy (EPWt September 8, 1984), Acharya and Madhur (hereafter AM) have sought to defend their modelling of the question and, despite their own doubts about the robustness of their empirical results, have stated that they "continue to subscribe" to their earlier conclusions. Their faith in the one regression equation estimated by them must indeed be overwhelming. For their reply to our critique not only does not squarely face the questions raised in our critique but also fails to recognise the implications of their 'caveats'for the issues at hand.

Garibi Hatao Elements of a Strategy

'Garibi Hatao': Elements of a Strategy S Sarath NILAKANTHA RATH (EPW, February 9) has made an interesting analysis of the 'garibi' issue and/the relevance of IRDP to the 'solution' of the problem of poverty in rural areas. M L Dantwala (EPW, March 16) has made a set of central comments whereas Indira Hirway's comments (EPW, March 30) underscore the importance of total planning and a central agency for implementing the plan. This note seeks to provide cross- lighting of the basic issue from another standpoint. Fart I of the note is on general concepts, Part II on an algebraic analysis which is intentionally simplistic and Part III on a numerical quantification of the algebra using either data presented by Rath and Hirway or information commonly available.

Agrarian Policies of Left Front Government in West Bengal

Agrarian Policies of Left Front Government in West Bengal Ashok Rudra BIPLAB DASGUPTA, in a series of three extremely interesting articles (EPW, Reviews of Agriculture, March, June and September, 1984), has covered a huge ground in Indian agricultural economics, focusing attention on agricultural labourers and tenancy relations in their proper historical perspectives. While the historical part of the papers is highly informative and valuable, it is unfortunate that he has messed up matters by trying to take up in the same papers a defence of the agrarian policies of the Left Front Government of West Bengal of which he is an important office-holder and a leading spokesman. Historical narration and their analytical treatment go ill with the polemical style of rebutting all criticisms that might have been made of the West Bengal government's policies. It is in this latter part of his papers that he has made plentiful references to me, many of them critical. Though, curiously, he has made more references to me for presenting evidence in terms of facts and figures for making positive propositions, or refuting views held by some others, I shall try in the following to defend positions held by me against some of his criticisms.

Export Optimism and Import Liberalisation

Export Optimism and Import Liberalisation Jayati Ghosh RECENTLY, Arguments that reject export pessimism and propound a macro-economic strategy which is based on a major aggressive thrust in export markets have become increasingly common in the Indian context. Bhagwati and Srinivasan (EPW; November 24, 1984) have reiterated their well known views that economic policies determined by ''unwarranted export pessimism" have been responsible in large part for India's hitherto unsatisfactory performance. They take issue with Chakravarty (EPW, May 19-26, 1984), who has argued that "at this stage India is unlikely to emerge as a leading actor on the export front". Bhagwati and Srinivasan, by contrast, see substantial export growth as a feasible basis for an Indian development strategy, given micro policies for export promotion and "very good macro policies". The latter arc implicitly seen to be similar to those of South Korea which has successfully restricted the growth of the product wage in industry and thus improved its competitiveness in world markets.1 The issue of export promotion is particularly relevant at the present time when Indian economic policies are undergoing a process of substantial reconsideration and revision. There are two ways of viewing the need for an export promotion strategy. The first, which is related to the general orientation of the growth strategy, is to see export markets as additional or alternative sources of demand which would counteract stagnation or recessionary tendencies in the home market. The second is to view-export growth primarily as a means of acquiring foreign exchange to finance increases in imports. Since these two have varying policy implications, it is necessary to consider each in turn.

Bashing Nutritionists The Small but Healthy Hypothesis

Bashing Nutritionists: The 'Small but Healthy?' Hypothesis Sol Chafkin DAVID SECKLER's somewhat testy presentation of his hypothesis (EPW, November 3,1984) shows unmistakable signs of "what we don't know (whether functional impairments result from chronic less-than-severe EPM, energy-protein malnutrition), won't hurt us" Acting on his hypothesis and adopting his proposed nutrition policy entail some risks and call for judgments that he has not explicitly acknowledged.


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