ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Women and the Burden of Child Health

rying explosives and arms had slipped and fallen under the train, trying to board it in a hurry. This young man has actually been hunted for by the police of Mahbubabad taluk for at least two years, and they had repeatedly threatened in the presence of witnesses that they would kill him if they found him. A less categorical case is that of Yakaiah, a harijan youth, again of Warangal.

One Way to Fight Sexism

regarded as a tribute extracted from agriculture, and paid out of the agricultural surplus. (In general, while both rents and taxes may vary, in principle the reasons are different.) Finally, it is disappointing that there is hardly any discussion of the crucial question of social ethos in Third World societies in this volume. Almost the only specific reference is Tom Kemp's remark that "entrepreneurs do not spring from the soil endowed with the protestant ethic or even elementary standards of honesty" (p 275). This idealisation of the Western protestant ethic, whose absence is held responsible for the grotesque' features of 'backward capitalism' in the Third World is itself controversial, if not grotesque. If we take seriously evidence of lack of honesty' or Corruption" of various kinds in general and in the context of what racism (not only in South Africa today but also in the Unitea States), its absence or ineffectiveness in the Third World may not look like a disaster But even if the 'developmental' aspects o Calvinistic or Lutheran ethics are take seriously, it is possible that more than their absence, the over-powering presence of an ideologically superior and more sophist- cated ethic of the Manusamhila or the Jan texts is one of the keys to understanding the: processes of modern capitalist development in India. When an idealisation of the 'Japanese ethos' (instead of the Western pre- testant ethic)

And Now, Made-To-Order Male Babies

At another level, there also seems to be a need to challenge the very existence of Free Tirade Zones, as these symbolise the imposition of a model of economic and industrial development beneficial only to the multi national corporations and their governments, at the expense of the women workers in the third world. This is a longer term perspective which needs to be developed and argued.

Towards a Women s Perspective on Family Planning

Towards a Women's Perspective on Family Planning Vimal Balasubrahmanyan THE paradox which characterises the Family Planning scene in India is this: On the one hand, women are the major targets of the FP programme with both messages and methods beamed intensively at them. On the other hand, the felt contraception needs of these target women, who predominantly belong to the lower socio-economic class, are not adequately catered to. In a country like India, women can be doubly victimised. By the patriarchal family which refuses to allow them to use contraception, and by the population controllers who make them the targets of unsafe contraception programmes. The latter aspect has been demonstrated in the disastrous IUD drive of the sixties and the mass laparoscopy camps of the eighties.

Hidden Power of Sexism in Media

 Hidden Power of Sexism in Media Vimal Balasubrahmanyan Women and Media: Analysis, Alternatives and Action edited by Kamla Bhasin and Bina Agarwal, illustrations by Simryn Gill; produced and published by Kali Press, New Delhi, in collaboration with Isis International and Pacific and Asian Women's Forum, 1984, pp 132.

WOMEN-Conjugal Rights Shift in Emphasis Needed

and federal experiment of the Indian republic in contrast to authoritarian and unitary Pakistan proved more attractive. Historical decisions of mergers and separation are often irreversible. But who is seeking to reverse the process of integration

HEALTH- Breast-Feeding Collage of Danger Signals

working in the all-powerful secretariat of the Prime Minister. Take yet another similar controversy which has been raked up on the question of inviting non-resident Indians to invest their savings in India. The Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister and subsequently the West Bengal Chief Minister during their visits abroad have tried to induce non-resident Indians on whom they could have some influence to respond to the Government of India's scheme in this regard. But Congress(I) ministers, including the Union Finance Minister, found it necessary to openly criticise the non-Congress Chief Ministers for working for the success of the Central scheme as some kind of an encroachment on a matter under Central jurisdiction. Such a stance can only cast doubts on the intentions of the Central leaders with respect to the formulation and implementation of the non-resident investment scheme itself, especially in the light of the Swraj Paul-Escorts affair which has become a matter of long court litigation as well public controversy, in particular, as to the source of funds employed by Swraj Paul in purchasing Escorts and DCM shares.

WOMEN- A Global Assembly Line

 offence was committed. Offences connected with Scheduled offences arc also triable by the Special Court. Committal proceedings in Magistrates courts are dispensed with. The Special Court acts on complaints or police reports straightaway. Offences punishable with a term not exceeding three years can be tried in a summary way. All proceedings are mandatorily to be held in camera. The Court is not given any discretion in this regard. Only if the Public Prosecutor so applies can proceedings be held in open Court.

HEALTH- Mass Use of Injectable Contraceptive

of the north-eastern region could be traced to poor credit absorption capacity of this region, resulting mainly from inadequate infrastructure and weak credit delivery system. Although the number of commercial bank branches in the region has increased in recent years, banks complain of many hurdles in identifying viable schemes and in undertaking pre-sanction appraisal and post-sanction supervision as also in recovery of loans. The measures taken by NABARD, including preparation of pre-in vestment surveys in the north-eastern region and special studies in other backward states with a view to identifying bottlenecks hampering credit flow and provision of 90 to 95 per cent refinance for schemes in the regions to induce member banks to formulate schemes have so far met with only limited success.

Three Fs of Child Health

63-64 and 73-74; urban poverty fell a bit. Given the overwhelming importance of the rural sector, it is fair to conclude that the magnitude of poverty in the economy in general was higher

Breast-feeding and Family Planning Policy

assigned to the public sector in the overall growth strategy. It is in this context that 'political push' is relevant. But even while Indira Gandhi has talked about 'political push' to improve management efficiency and secure returns from public sector undertakings, the role of public sector enterprises in the growth strategy has tended to be undermined and diluted in official policy. Opening up for private enterprise areas hitherto reserved for public sector in the name of efficiency and because of paucity of resources for public sector investment is affecting the performance of public sector undertakings and their future expansion. This cannot but undermine the morale of public sector managers and impair their efficiency in many direct and indirect ways.

WOMEN- Conjugal Rights vs Personal Liberty- Andhra High Court Judgment

Conjugal Rights vs Personal Liberty Andhra High Court Judgment Vimal Balasubrahmanyan ON July I this year, Justice P A Chowdhary of the Andhra Pradesh High Court struck down Section 9 of the'Hindu Marriage Act (1955) as violative of Article 21 of the Constitution. Under Section 9, when either wife or husband has without reasonable excuse withdrawn from the other's society, the aggrieved party may apply to the court for restitution of conjugal rights According to the judgment in the case of Venkata Subbiah against his wife, film actress Sareetha, it was held that Section 9 constitutes the grossest form of violation of an individual's privacy and human dignity which are both included in the fundamental right to life and personal liberty guaranteed by Article 21 of the Constitution. Saree- tha's plea against her husband's petition for restitution of conjugal rights was that the provision was unconstitutional. This plea was upheld by the court.

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