ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Concerns about Autonomy and Academic Freedom in Higher Education Institutions

Autonomy is crucial for the growth and development of higher education. Considering how different commissions and committees set up by the Government of India from time to time have looked at autonomy and accountability, this essay makes the point that there is an interesting interplay between the two and that without them it is virtually impossible to achieve excellence. It argues that the governance structure in all institutions of higher learning should be conducive for consensus making, resulting in both autonomy and accountability. Besides focusing on factors which can signifi cantly contribute to enhancing autonomy, the article argues that effective autonomy cannot descend as a "gift" from above, it has to be earned.

Trends in Growth and Financing of Higher Education in India

The Indian higher education system is presently facing several challenges. The challenge of global competitiveness has been added to other demanding tasks such as access, equity, relevance, quality, privatisation and internationalisation in the face of a resource crunch. This article gives an overview of trends in the expansion of higher education and examines variations in participation across states, gender and social groups. An attempt has also been made to discuss the trends in the financing of higher education and the required resources to meet the target of allocating 6 per cent of the GDP to education. It argues that without appropriate policy interventions in school education, it would be of little use to have interventions at the higher educational level, which discriminate in favour of girls, SCs and STs.
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