ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Globalisation and Threat to Seed Security

There are high social and ecological costs linked to globalisation of non-sustainable agriculture which have been experienced in all commercially-grown and chemically-farmed crops in all regions. While the benefits of globalisation go to the seeds and chemical corporations through expanding markets, the cost and risks are exclusively born by the small farmers and landless peasants. While the commercial private seed supply system needs strong state regulation, farmer seed supply should function free of state interference with strong community control and public participation. Strong biosafety regulation with public participation is both a democratic and an ecological imperative.

Monopoly and Monoculture-Trends in Indian Seed Industry

Trends in Indian Seed Industry Vandana Shiva Tom Crompton The Indian seed industry is expected to grow very rapidly in the coming years. There are several grounds for expecting that the seed industry wilt coalesce under the control of a few large companies with foreign interests. Firstly hybrid seed is produced principally by large companies and its use is set to increase following the decline of the public sector for various reasons. Secondly, smaller companies will find it increasingly difficult to compete because the market is fickle. Moreover, the plant variety protection regulations will scotch a market in second and subsequent generations. Thirdly, there will be increased use of transgenic crops which are produced only by those companies which can meet the high development costs.

Economic Crisis of South-East Asia-IMF Measures Invite Ecological Disaster

shall use force unilaterally if and when necessary if we lead from strength and resolve." Following the collapse of the east Economic Crisis of South-East Asia IMF Measures Invite Ecological Disaster Vandana Shiva The team's composition was itself revelatory. Richard Butler, Unscom's chairman, is an Australian who began his career in the spy business by investigating' as one UN civil servant pointed out "the forces of international communist subversion in Australia and south-east Asia". During and after the Vietnam carnage the qualities of this racist witchhunter were deeply valued by MI6 and the CIA. He was judged the ideal candidate as the supremo of the occupation of Iraq.

Biodiversity Totalitarianism-IPRs as Seed Monopolies

In India's conditions of peasant agriculture, farmers are still the major suppliers of seeds. The real basis of farmers rights is in the recognition of the collective innovation by farming communities embodied in farmers varieties, and evolving a jurisprudence that protects and rewards this collective wisdom.

Agricultural Biodiversity, Intellectual Property Rights and Farmers Rights

Rights and Farmers' Rights Vandana Shiva Under pressure from the US and to meet the requirements of the TRIPs agreement, new intellectual property rights legislation is being introduced in the area of plant genetic resources. Against this, people's organisations and others are fighting to protect farmers' rights to their biodiversity and to survival, as well as the freedom of scientists to work for the removal of hunger rather than for corporate profits. This paper describes the conflict between farmers and the transnational seed industry, and outlines a people's charter of farmers' rights.

Farmers Rights, Biodiversity and International Treaties

Farmers' Rights, Biodiversity and International Treaties Vandana Shiva Who owns biodiversity? Can intellectual contributions that modify or record biodiversity be the instruments to establish rights to ownership over these resources? What are the modes for just and fair compensation to contributors of knowledge and genetic resources? These are questions that are central to debates surrounding the conservation and use of biodiversity and genetic resources and are directly related to implementation of the Biodiversity Convention. These questions have also been raised at negotiations on intellectual property rights (IPRs) taking place in GATT and in the FAO.

Environmental Extremism

redrawn to ensure proper spread of branches and closure of some branches where there is excessive bank density. This is a job to be undertaken by the Reserve Bank in collaboration with NABARD and the Lead Bank of the district. Otherwise, some areas may continue to be over-banked while some other areas may not have banking facilities within easy reach. The question is whether this reorganisation of branches in a district should be planned properly or be left to the initiative of each bank which means ad hoc development.

Biotechnology Development and Conservation of Biodiversity

Biotechnology Development and Conservation of Biodiversity Vandana Shiva All technological transformation of biodiversity is justified in the language of 'improvement' and increase of 'economic value'. However, 'improvement' and 'value' are not neutral terms. They are contextual and value laden. What is improvement in one context is often regression in another. What is value added from one perspective is value lost from another IN the dominant paradigm, technology is seen as being above society both in its structure and its evolution, in its offering technological fixes, and in its technological determinism. It is seen as a source of solution to problems that lie in society, and is rarely perceived as a source of new social problems. Us course is viewed as being self-determined. In periods of rapid technological transformation, it is assumed that society and people must adjust to that change, instead of technological change adjusting to the social values of equity, sustainability and participation.

Political Economy of Ecology Movements

Political Economy of Ecology Movements Jayanta Bandyopadhyay Vandana Shiva Development activity in India has proceeded on a resource-intensive path. It has seriously disrupted ecological stability of life support systems which has been maintained through centuries. Resource demands of the process have undermined the productive potential of natural resources and have created severe ecological instability It is in this context that ecology movements have emerged and are throwing up indicators to assess the impact of development process on natural resources, their uses and how the cost and benefits they carry are distributed among different societal groups. This paper attempts to systematise and provide a conceptual framework for understanding the development process and its structural features from the .ecological perspective.

Geopolitics of Food-America s Use of Food as a Weapon

which further social advance will be much more possible, than under the present imperialist-comprador-bureaucratic- feudal dispensation. Coming back to the question of the reasons for an organisation of industry to demand a more favourable situation for the peasants, this is to the obvious benefit of those sections of industry that are suppliers of consumer and input commodities to the countryside. Their market depends very much on the surplus left over after meeting input costs. This surplus would affect both the consumer demand of the peasants and their ability to carry out investment, which would mean a larger purchase of inputs. But the immediate and obvious benefit would be for those industries supplying commodities other than agricultural inputs. The Punjab Haryana-Delhi-west UP region has the growth of a considerable rural market both for agricultural inputs and for con- sumer goods. But in the recent past this market has not grown as rapidly as it did in the seventies.

Drought, Development and Desertification

they will discover that virtually all of their rescued indigenous wheat varieties can only be obtained from the United States. In fact, according to the US National Academy of Science, collection programmes are currently oriented to the needs of the developed countries." In fact instances have been reported, from Kenya and Libya for instance, of plant varieties being taken out to the developed countries, and later, when the indigenous varieties had become extinct in their home countries, these countries having to pay for obtaining their seeds in a commercial purchase.

Coming Tragedy of the Commons

Coming Tragedy of the Commons Vandana Shiva FIVE million hectares of recovery of the commons in India each year could mean the end of rural poverty and a reversal of ecological trends of a collapse of critical life- support-systems of soil, water and vegetation. 'Yet the Wasteland Development Programme is not a recovery of the commons project. It is a privatisation of the commons project which threatens to accentuate rural poverty and increase ecological instability, because in one fell swoop it will rob the poor of their remaining common resources, the only survival base to which they have access. The usurpation of the commons which began with the British will reach its final limit with the Wasteland Development Programme. Chattarpati Singh of the Law Institute argues: "It is evident that till the end of the last century and in all historical periods before that at least 80 per cent of India's natural resources were common property, with only 20 per cent being privately utilised. . . This extensive common property has provided the resource base for a noncash, non-market economy. A whole range of necessary resources has been freely available to the people. Thus commonly available wood, shrubs, and cowdung has been utilised for cooking and heating, mud, bamboo and palm leaves for housing, wild grass and shrubs as animal fodder, and a variety of fruits and vegetables as food." These free commons have been the survival base for rural India. With reservation of forests, the first step in the privatisation of commons took place a century ago. Today, the next and final step in the disappearance of the commons is taking place as 'Wasteland Development'.

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