ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Changes in Wages and Earnings of Rural Labourers

This study aims to capture the changes in rural wages in different states of India and tries to relate the observed variations in level and trend to some plausible explanatory variables. This study is based on rural wage data taken from various rounds of the National Sample Survey and mainly focuses on the level and trend in wages during the first decade of 21st century. It makes an attempt to identify several variables that could explain the observed variations among Indian states in levels and trends during this period.

Kerala: A Year of Governing Precariously

It has been a year since the United Democratic Front government took offi ce in Kerala. During this period communal forces have exercised their infl uence in government formation, and caste and sectarian mobilisation has grown. One could surmise from the policy orientation of the state government over the past year that the ascending classes now have a decisive infl uence over the agenda of development projects. While taking crucial decisions on investment priorities, the government is playing to the gallery of public opinion, which, in turn, has been taken over by special interest groups.

Labour Regulation and Employment Protection in Europe: Some Reflections for Developing Countries

A review of evidence on employment and wages from selected European Union countries leads one to surmise that in the context of developing countries, we tend to judge the performance of labour regulatory regimes more in terms of their impact on employment creation. Inadvertently though, we seem to foist a false idiom, since a job-creating function is beyond the terms of reference of any protectionist labour regulation. What is important in developing countries is to facilitate a rapid, but endogenous evolution of labour institutions that can protect workers' rights and remain friendly to job-creation. This requires a fresh look at some national level policies and programmes, which are not necessarily in the domain of labour relations.

Is Legislation the Only Solution?

Instead of social assistance schemes for unorganised workers this article argues for a broad-based social assistance covering the entire country. A concerted effort towards increasing the quantum of social spending on the basic needs of all citizens can make a world of difference to their quality of life. Historical evidence suggests that the protective security systems that are widespread in the developed countries are the outcome and not the cause of improved living standards and productivity levels.

Dignity at Work

This paper argues that historically the main mission of trade unions has been to ensure an equitable distribution of the fruits of economic growth. The unions accomplished this mission through strategies aimed at enhancing the content of 'substantive rights' - wages, hours of work and working conditions - and at minimising income inequalities between the incumbents and new entrants to the world of work. A return to this earlier emphasis on non-competing groups has assumed strategic importance in today's global economy. The paper discusses some options before the labour movement with special reference to the developing countries. There is much to learn from union experience in industrial societies, where they have made substantive rights accessible to a broad spectrum of workers including those at the lower end of markets. By building on such rights, the labour movement can help develop a social floor for the global economy, empowering workers to gain access to a larger basket of rights and entitlements.

Agricultural Wages in India

This paper attempts a comparative analysis of agricultural wages in various Indian states from the agricultural year 1970-71 to 1984-85. The author first discusses the data sources and the methodology followed. Thereafter he proceeds to the main findings on the movement of wages over time, their dispersion across states and gender groups within the agricultural labour force. In the second part of the study there is an attempt to explain temporal movements and spatial and gender disparities observed in the wage rates.

Farm Mechanisation in Asian Countries-Some Perspectives

Some Perspectives A V Jose In a number of densely populated Asian countries, rural workers dependent on agricultural wage employment as their principal source of income account for a sizeable share of the total labour force engaged in agriculture. This lends significance to analysis of the net impact of farm mechanisation on prospective wage income of the rural population. Some issues related to farm mechanisation and also the consequences of farm mechanisation are examined in this paper.

Real Wages, Employment, and Income of Agricultural Labourers

Agricultural Labourers A V Jose An increase in agricultural production implies an increase in the income of alt strata of the agrarian population; given the fact that Indian agriculture has made significant strides with the new technology, it should result in a rising demand for labour and thereby higher real wages for agricultural labourers

Trends in Real Wage Rates of Agricultural Labourers

This paper makes a comparative study of wage rates of agricultural labourers in the different states over the period 1956-57 to 1971-72. While according to earlier studies wage rates improved significantly in real terms only in Punjab (including Haryana and Kerala), our extension of the series to 1971-72 shows that improvement in real wages took place also in Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat. However, these states still account for less than 30 per cent of the agricultural labour force in the country.

Wage Rates of Agricultural Labourers in Kerala

THE behaviour of the wage rates of agricultural labourers in Kerala has attracted particular attention in recent years. According to a comparative study of wage rate movements in the IADP districts in various states between 1962- 63 and 1967-68, daily real wage rate recorded the maximum percentage increase in the Alleppey and Palghat districts of Kerala, although the growth of agricultural production associated with the Green Revolution has been much greater in the IADP districts of other states like Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat. 1 The purpose of this article is to go in detail into the level, fluctuations and trend of wage rates for agricultural labourers in the whole of Kerala to see to what extent the phenomenon observed in the two IADP districts obtained in the other districts of the state.
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