ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Hospitalisation Insurance A Proposal

Hospitalisation Insurance: A Proposal T N Krishnan By preventing erosion of their already low incomes, a health insurance plan is aim indirectly an income protection plan for the poor, This note proposes a hospitalisation insurance plan for persons below the poverty line.

Population Policies Some Issues

Population Policies Reconsidered: Health, Empowerment, and Rights edited by Gita Sen, Adrienne Germain, Lincoln C Chen; Harvard Series on Population and International Health, distributed by Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, March 1994; pp XIV and 280; $ 14.95.

Population, Poverty and Employment in India

Population, Poverty and Employment in India T N Krishnan This paper represents a preliminary attempt to examine the successes and failures of the Indian economy in integrating population issues with development planning and what were, or would be, the consequences of rapid population growth for the alleviation of poverty in the country.

Wages, Employment and Output in Interrelated Labour Markets in an Agrarian Economy-A Study of Kerala

Labour Markets in an Agrarian Economy A Study of Kerala T N Krishnan This paper examines the wage structure and wage movements and their relation to employment and output in an agrarian economy in transition. In order to explain wage movements in such an economy, the paper develops the concept of 'interrelated labour markets'.

Demographic Transition in Kerala-Facts and Factors

Demographic Transition in Kerala Facts and Factors T N Krishnan This paper examines the recent trends in birth, death and infant mortality rates the three key demographic parameters which define the demographic profile of a region

Public Distribution and Procurement of Foodgrains-A Correction and Some Elucidations and Observations

forget that the public distribution system, as it is today, plays a limited and purposive role. To change it would require a radical re-ordering of priorities and policies, The system has been performing the role of ensuring supplies to the urban areas

Public Distribution and Procurement of Foodgrains-A Proposal

comprehensive scheme for the procurement and public distribution of cereals for the country as a whole. The reasons for such a scheme to concentrate on the distribution of cereals are quite obvious; not only do cereals provide more than half the calories in the average Indian diet but also they account for three-fourths or more of whatever calories persons in the low income groups are able to garner .each day. As the National Cominission on Agriculture says; "Considering that a substantial portion of the Indian population today subsists below the line of poverty, it should be a national obligation to take care of those who are at the subsistence level or below, particularly in difficult years. This should be the most important aspect of public policy. The only way of protecting the vulnerable sections front the impact of rising prices and inflation is to provide th food grains through public distribution, or, if this cannot be the foodgrains prices sufficiently low".1 In this paper, we have attempted to work out, first, the magnitude of cereals required for public distribution if the vulnerable groups of population are to be protected from price rise; second, the equitable manner in which that quantity can be procured internally; and, finally, the various policy implica tions which would follow from the adoption of such a scheme on public distribution and procurement of cereals.

The Fifth Five-Year Plan Model-A Comment

A Comment THE Approach to the Fifth Plan' considers the removal of poverty and the attainment of self-reliance as the two major tasks of the Plan. These objectives arc to be realised through a redistribution of consumption from the top 30 per cent to the bottom 30 per cent of the population and by a reduction in net foreign aid inflow to naught by the terminal year of the Fifth Plan. A "Technical Note on the Approach to the Fifth Plan"2 has now been made available which describes the framework of calculation adopted for determining the numerical magnitudes of the Plan incorporating the above objectives in the mathematical model constructed for this purpose. This Technical Note states:3 "The heart of the framework of reason- ing consists in applying an open static Leontief model for ensuring terminal year consistency amongst the output levels of different sectors. For arriving at terminal year investment levels, a macro-economic growth model ha- been used. For estimating consumption, a special consumption model has been developed which constitutes an innovation in the context of interindustry model building. Imports have been endogenously estimated through constructing suitable import co-efficient marries." This summarises the logic of the model adopted for the Fifth Plan. Thus, the model has three parts: a macro- model, primarily for estimating investment, an input-output model for estimating sectoral output levels and imports, and a consumption model for deriving sectoral consumption levels under alternative assumptions.

On Deterring Undervaluation of Property

IT was more than a decade and a half ago that Nicholas Kaldor suggested as part of his package of tax reform for India that the government ought to have the right to take over a property at the taxpayer's valuation where the government believes that the said property's value has been understated for tax purposes. Kaldor's recommendation was a broad one in the sense that the government's right to acquire property was related to the taxpayer's declaration of value for purposes of taxation regardless of whether or not the property passed hands in sale or underwent any construction. Almost exactly 15 years thereafter, the Direct Taxes Enquiry Committee, more popularly known as the Wanchoo Committee, when confronted with the problem of the use of property undervaluation as an outlet of tax-evaded money, recommended that the government should acquire the right to take over properties whose value has been understated in formal documents of transfers on sale. The purpose of both Nicholas Kaldor and the Wanchoo Committee was expressly the same, namely to deter the use of property undervaluation with a view to evading taxes, but the Wanchoo Committee's recommendation was far narrower than Kaldor's.

Taxation of Property and Net Wealth in India-A Note

Taxation of Property and Net Wealth in India A Note T N Krishnan This paper attempts a study of same aspects of direct taxation in India and analyses in detail the steps for introduction of a comprehensive and broad-based tax on property and net wealth.

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