ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Organic Cotton Supply Chains and Small Producers

Whether local producers will benefit from trade liberalisation is predicated upon their ability to enter global value chains or production networks of the lead firms. Understanding how these chains are organised, controlled and governed is the key to unravelling how the gains from these networks/chains are shared across the participants. This paper examines the issues of governance and small producer participation in the organic cotton supply chain in India with the help of a case study of a private firm. The paper assesses the prospects and ways and means of including marginal and small producers in these chains if the organic sector has to play its developmental role.

Credit, Indebtedness and Farmer Suicides in Punjab

gap and the need for credit for other purposes, for which formal institutions do Credit, Indebtedness and not offer any credit, make farmers turn to the arthiyas or moneylenders which the author recognises. Also, seasonal repay- Farmer Suicides in Punjab ment, being a must in institutional sources Some Missing Links SUKHPAL SINGH The EPW Review of Agriculture (June 30, 2006) with two papers (P Satish,

Crisis and Diversification in Punjab Agriculture

The farming crisis in post-green revolution Punjab has assumed serious proportions, manifested in suicides by a large number of farmers. This paper examines the nature and magnitude of crisis in the farm sector in the state and analyses diversification strategies recommended and adopted so far, more specifically contract farming experiments. It concludes by discussing some possible ways to tackle the farm sector crisis in a sustainable manner.

Punjab : Agricultural Wages and Employment

The introduction of technology has seen a steady decline in demand for human labour on Punjab farms, a process accelerated by the stagnation in overall agricultural growth. Increase in labour demand in the dairy sector has compensated for this fall, but in future the secondary and tertiary sectors will have to grow faster to absorb the state's growing labour force.

Contract Farming and Forest Management

guarantee at a pre-determined price at the end of eight years if the trees met certain Contract Farming quality specifications. The farmers were free to sell to others if they so wished. The loan instalments were not of equal amount and Forest Management and decreased annually over the eight Company-farmer Partnerships for the Supply of Raw Material to Wood-based Industry by Sushil Saigal and Divya Kashyap; India Country Sub-study published by Eco-tech Services (India), New Delhi and International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London; 2002.

Deceleration of Economic Growth in Punjab

Since its phenomenal growth in the 1960s, Punjab is now facing an economic crisis of unprecedented scale. The decelerating economic growth is essentially rooted in the irrational pattern of investment and declining developmental expenditure and compounded by the crisis in agriculture, due to marginalisation of the small farmer and population pressure on land. The need at the outset, is a dire need to reorient the government's investment planning and strategy, along with implementation of change in the organisational pattern of production.

Green Revolution: In Light and Shade

Green Revolutions Reconsidered – The Rural World of Contemporary Punjab by Himmat Singh; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2001; pp 302, Rs 595.

Crisis in Punjab Agriculture

The seeds of the recent decline of Punjab agriculture were in the manner of its growth in the 1960s and 1970s: unsustainable technology, overmechanisation, monoculture, etc. But though state-sponsored green revolution went wrong in some ways, there is a role for the state in resolving the present crisis.

Structural Adjustment Programme and Indian Agriculture-Towards an Assessment of Implications

In the wake of the Structural Adjustment Programme initiated in the early 1990s, it is inevitable that the agricultural and rural sector will experience its share of threats and opportunities. The severe effect of economic and policy changes in the agricultural sector will he felt in the areas of agricultural trade and capital investments in agro- activities. This paper looks at the emerging evidence on these two crucial aspects of agro-sector and argues that there will be serious distortions with the emergence of the new trade regime, both internal and external, and the dominance of agribusiness corporations by way of corporate and contract farming. The penetration of the market into the rural economy will put pressure on the already marginalised sections and make small and marginal producers an assetless workforce. The only available mechanisms to reduce this impact will be producers' organisations of various types like co-operatives, informal groups and the political pressure groups.

Dunkel Text Implications for Rural Sector

P Thomas Sukhpal Singh Ajit Kanitkar Sara Ahmed E Michael Johnson The proposals put for ward by Arthur Dunkel, until recently the Director General of GATT, have been the object of intense arguments and debate. In the context of this ongoing debate that this paper discusses the Dunkel Proposals, with special focus on its implications for the rural sector. Besides giving an overview of the main issues raised in the course of the debate, it draws attention to the major aspects of the debate specific to the particular sector under consideration

Vital Issues in Development

to differentially affect different groups and classes in society. This may be both the latent purpose and the means by which the 'success' of this strategy is achieved. Thus, in some Latin American countries, a drastic curtailment of the power of organised trade unions may be the major institutional change brought about, so as to increase the relative strength of the capitalist class. In other countries, as in India, the burden is likely to fall more heavily on unorganised groups, even as organised workers also lose their rights and their bargaining strength. A relative enrichment of those with access to social and political power is usually concomitant with this package even while the disadvantaged sections become worse off. More unequal income distribution is both a result and a symptom of this process in all cases. Concentrating simply on aggregating macro-economic variables may obscure this important tendency.

Third World Underdevelopment-Solutions from Within

Third World Underdevelopment Solutions from Within Sukhpal Singh Development and Underdevelopment: The History, Economics and Politics of North-South Relations by Hartmut Elsenhans; Sage, New Delhi, 1991 (first published in 1984); pp 176, Rs 160.

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