ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Capitalist Development and Rural Livelihoods

Indian agriculture has been facing intrusion of large capital into its domain in various forms, such as contract farming, industrialised agriculture, forcible acquisition of agricultural land for industrial plants. The impacts of such capitalist development on rural livelihoods are explored. It is argued that reform in agriculture—through setting up of special agricultural zones and other similar means—needs to be undertaken for further rural economic development, in general, and for protection of agriculture-related livelihoods, in particular. The prospects of the rural industrial sector are also examined and, in this context, it is argued that the clustering of rural non-farm enterprises can pave the way for an alternative development paradigm.

Urbanisation and Development of Rural Small Enterprises

This article attempts to seek a relationship between urbanisation and the development of small rural firms, using West Bengal as a case study. Small industrialisation is found to be directly related to the degree of urbanisation, and there is a clear urban concentration of small enterprises in West Bengal. Infrastructure and services are mainly confined to a small region and rural industrialisation has not been promoted. Government investment on rural infrastructure is essential to promote the rural non-agricultural sector in the backward districts.
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