ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by Shyama V RamaniSubscribe to Shyama V Ramani

On Incidence of Diarrhoea among Children in India

Drinking water, sanitation and hygiene behaviour, referred to as the WASH variables by the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund, are acknowledged as the three main determinants of diarrhoeal diseases. But the impact of their complementarities on disease incidence remains understudied. This study uses state and household level data to examine the determinants of child diarrhoeal incidence. It introduces indicators of WASH quality and combined presence, both at the household and state levels. It combines them in a novel analysis to understand their roles. In the Indian states, with the worst WASH infrastructure, these variables are strategic substitutes, but as WASH infrastructure improves, they become strategic complements. Thus, resource allocation to lower diarrhoea incidence must take into account the complementary rather than individual presence of these focal variables. Further, the quality of WASH also matters. The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, targeting universal sanitation coverage, is unlikely to be effective unless it breaks the Gordian knot of complementarities and WASH quality holding up the burden of childhood diarrhoea.

TRIPS: Its Possible Impact on Biotech Segment of the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

Many countries of the world, including India, have achieved self-sufficiency in knowledge intensive sectors by allowing for a loosely defined intellectual property rights (IPR) regime. The implementation of TRIPS worldwide represents a step in the opposite direction and its impact on the production and innovative capacity of developing countries in knowledge intensive sectors is not at all clear. Taking India as representative of a technologically advanced developing country, and the biotech based segment of the pharmaceutical industry as an example of an emerging knowledge intensive sector, we examine the possible impact of TRIPS on the incentives and ability to innovate. The conclusion is that TRIPS is not likely to have a significant impact on incentives for innovation creation in the biotech segment.

Back to Top