ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Redressing Teachers' Grievances

The process of redressing grievances of public sector employees has received little systematic attention, despite the large volume of such litigation. This article attempts to address this gap through an analysis of the role courts play in redressing grievances of teachers in government and government-aided schools. The possibility of alternative grievance redressal forums that could serve as more effi cient and accessible alternatives to high courts is also explored.

How Do Government and Private Schools Differ?

This paper uses primary survey data from government and private schools in the two states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh to explore systematic differences between the two school types. Although private schools have higher raw mean scores than government schools, after controlling for observed student and school characteristics the private school advantage in test scores is not robust. The sources of private school advantage lie in the types of students choosing these schools, lower pupil teacher ratios and much lower teacher salaries. Private schools have seven to eight times lower teacher salaries but do not differ systematically in infrastructure and teacher effort from government schools. Given the large salary differential, private schools are more cost effective although quality of education is low in both school types.

Public Participation, Teacher Accountability and School Outcomes in Three States

This paper presents findings from baseline surveys on student learning achievement, teacher effort and community participation in three states - Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The results indicate low teacher attendance and poor student learning. Parents and school committees are neither aware of their oversight roles nor do they participate in school management. However, there is substantial heterogeneity in outcomes across states. Karnataka has better student and teacher outcomes, as well as higher levels of community awareness and participation than the other two states. The authors find substantial variation in teacher effort within schools, but most observable teacher characteristics are not associated with teacher effort. One reason for low teacher effort may be a lack of accountability. However, the gains in test scores associated with higher rates of teacher attendance and engagement in teaching are estimated to be small in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, suggesting that teachers themselves may not be effective.

Economic Perspectives on Resettlement-and Rehabilitation

and Rehabilitation Sangeeta Goyal What constitutes adequate and appropriate resettlement and rehabilitation of people displaced by development projects has been the subject of considerable debate. This paper presents the case for a national policy on resettlement and rehabilitation and discusses different principles that have been proposed as possible bases for such a policy.
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