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Economic Reform and Its Impact on Poor

This paper attempts to study the impact of the economic reform measures on the poor by looking at (i) the effect of these measures on income and consumption in agriculture and the informal small industry sector, (ii) the performance of safety net programmes to protect the 'new poor' exposed to the adverse impact of reform in the short run, (iii) the direct and indirect effects of the government's social service and human development programmes in the preand post-reform periods, and (iv) the employment picture of the country in the post-reform period. The results of the study are mixed, but in general they show that the social costs of reform, while they may have been low as compared to those in many other developing countries, are nevertheless high enough to demand a corrective course.

Debt Crisis and Economic Reforms

Any study of the growth of India 's external debt cannot be undertaken in isc tion from the growth of domestic public debt. The question is whether the present economic reform will succeed in reversing the rising trends in debt service ratio and percentage of public and external debt to GNP in a sustainable fashion. An at pt is made here to answer the question with the help of a simple macro-economic model THE present economic reform in India has been triggered primarily by an external debt crisis, mainly an outcome of her domestic fiscal imbalance, i e, overspending by the government. Three years of this reform have already passed. The impact of some of the policies under this reform is now perceptible. There is a general feeling from the experience of other countries that for accessing the full impact of such policies, the three-year period is 'too short'. At the same time, it is felt that as far as mid-course corrections in the policy packages are required, it will be too late if their results are not detected in time.

Fiscal Correction and Human Resource Development-Expenditure at Central and State Levels

Fiscal Correction and Human Resource Development Expenditure at Central and State Levels S P Gupta A K Sarkar This paper attempts to examine whether human resource development has been adversely affected by the macro- economic and sectoral policy reforms undertaken by the government of India since 1991. It analyses the human resource development expenditure of the central and state governments since 1988. The analysis may help in judging whether the economic costs of adjustment are fast getting transposed into heavy social costs.

Planning and Liberalisation

Planning and Liberalisation S P Gupta Given the changes in the government's economic policy directions towards more indicative and financial planning, the time has come for the finance ministry and the Planning Commission to devise closer working arrangements under a joint policy regime. The comparative advantage of the Planning Commission with a large technical team should be exploited for initiating in-depth analysis of the causes of the recent macro-economic imbalances. Attempting to deal with them solely via a macro-frame baied almost exclusively on the central budget without detailed consideration of the many micro/sectoral economic activities covering technical, institutional and other factors will be highly risky.

Financial Reform Role of Liberalisation

Financial Reform: Role of Liberalisation S P Gupta Nirupam Bajpai The World Bank, World Development Report 1989; Oxford University Press, THE World Development Report 1989 (henceforth Report) is the twelfth annual report in a series to assess global development issues. The focus of the Report this year is on the role of financial systems in development. The central message of the Report is that the developing countries must be prepared to undertake wide-ranging reforms of their financial sectors to encourage the return of flight capital and mobilise the investment needed for economic recovery. Financial sector reforms are suggested in the backdrop of the assumption that external capital flows will remain limited for the foreseeable future Besides, it has been emphatically stated that the traditional banking structures in the developing countries have led to misallocation of credit, financial distress and inefficiency which has wasted savings and impaired growth prospects.

Employment Goals and Development Priorities

S P Gupta T G Srinivasan By adopting a concept of standard person-years in the Sixth Plan for measuring employment, the earlier neglect of the productivity aspect of employment was partly removed and the concept of gainful employment was emphasised In this sense in the Sixth Plan for the first time the goal of employment and the goal of poverty eradica tion were reconciled and the apparent trade-off between employment generation and growth largely rationalised.

Inflation and the Role of Administered Prices

Inflation and the Role of Administered Prices S P Gupta T G Srinivasan Using a simple intersectoral model, an attempt is made in this paper to assess the impact of changed in administered prices on sectoral and overall price movements.

Poverty Calculation in the Sixth Plan

Poverty Calculation in the Sixth Plan S P Gupta K L Datta The estimates of people crossing the poverty line given in the Mid-term Appraisal of the Sixth Plan (MTA) have aroused an interesting debate regarding the effect of aggregate income growth in reducing poverty and ah. the effectiveness of some of the redistributive measures adopted by the Government in ultimately benefiting the poor. Many of these issues are directly related to the methodology used in estimating poverty. This paper concentrates mainly on some of the methodological issues related to estimation of poverty.

Scientists and TheirCommitment to Organisational Goals

It is not enough for a country to pump in more monetary investment into scientific research; it must create a climate that is conducive to the flowering of creative talents. For this, scientists must be made to feel committed to organisational goals. This cannot be done just by changing the organisational system or providing more facilities.
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