ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Agriculture and Rural Employment in the Budget

The finance minister has tried to balance economic reforms and social justice in tune with the Common Minimum Programme. However, given the degree of agrarian distress and problem of low wages and underemployment, the budget should have had a greater focus on and made higher allocations to agriculture and rural employment. Contrary to the claims, this, however, has not been the case. ?Bharat Nirman? is possible only if agriculture and employment are given their due share

Calorie Norms and Poverty

In recent years there has been considerable criticism of estimates of poverty in the country. However, estimating poverty using the direct method based on calorie norms gives absurd results such as the headcount ratio in the south being higher than in the BIMORU states and the highest in Tamil Nadu. There certainly is a need to revisit the methodology of estimating the poverty lines. But developing a methodology that exaggerates the poverty numbers is not the solution.

How to Make Rural India Shine

This paper examines some important indicators relating to rural India in the pre- and post-liberalisation periods and finds that rural India is not 'shining'. To make rural development more broad based and balanced, investment, technology and appropriate institutions are needed. Ten general areas where policy attention is required are outlined.

Krishna Raj: Tributes

Relationships Krishna Raj nurtured an abiding intellectual relationship between the EPW and the researchers at RBI without compromising the journal

Female Work Participation and Child Labour

This study examines female work participation and child labour rates using occupational data from NFHS and compares this data with the 2001 Census and NSS data. Attempts are made to identify the determinants of both female work participation and child labour. It is found that the larger the size of the family, the lower is the ability of a woman to participate in economic activity. Household size is not a determining factor for the participation of children in the workforce.

Agriculture, Employment and Social Sector Neglected

The 2003-04 Budget fails to address the major problems of agriculture, employment generation and the social sector.

Macroeconomic Scene: Performance and Policies

This paper examines the state's macroeconomic performance and policies in terms of economic growth and human development. The macroeconomic performance in the last two decades is evaluated with the focus on the 1990s. How has Andhra Pradesh performed over time? And how does the state's performance and status compare with those of the other major states and the country as a whole?

Employment and Unemployment

The authors analyse the nature of the employment problem in Andhra Pradesh based on recent trends in employment and unemployment and in the quality of employment. Against the backdrop of projections of employment up to 2020, policies for promotion of employment are explored.

Economic Reforms and Challenges Ahead

Andhra Pradesh has earned for itself the reputation of being at the forefront of economic reforms in the country, thanks to its initiatives in fiscal correction and restructuring of institutions. However, there remain significant challenges in the economic and social sectors that the state needs to address if it is to derive the full benefits of the reforms already launched and to make development more balanced, broad-based and sustainable.

Causes of Fertility Decline in India and Bangladesh

Conventional approaches to studies on fertility decline have long assumed the primacy of the household as the prime decision-maker. Aspects of the household such as its economic standard of living, social standing, exposure to mass media, work status were some of the influential factors at work on a couple's decision on their number of children. However, individual and household level factors have been unable in several instances to explain the full course of fertility transition seen in some Indian states and Bangladesh, where in some regions fertility transition cuts across socio-economic and cultural boundaries.Gaps in understanding such trends have been as this paper suggests due to the conventional emphasis on household level variables. It argues instead for the need to look at the influence the community plays in south Asia and to understand the levels of interaction that exist at household level and at the community level.

Bold Initiatives Needed on Agriculture and Rural Employment

The specific proposals of Budget 2002-03 for agriculture and rural development do not live up to expectations. There is need for bold initiatives on public investment, credit and creating incentives for private investment to revive agricultural growth and expansion of rural employment.

Social Sector Expenditures in the 1990s

This paper focuses on social sector expenditure in the 1990s, and looks at several aspects, including overall levels of allocation, expenditure on health and education and interstate disparities. India's social sector expenditure in the 1990s was lower than that in the 1980s and also less than that of most other developing countries. With India ranking 115th in the Human Development Index, there is an obvious need to step up social sector expenditure and improve fund utilisation.


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