ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

S L RaoSubscribe to S L Rao

Consumer Markets Myths and Reality

in the production and sales of all consumer products. Fast moving consumer goods like toilet soaps, detergents, tea, shampoos, lipsticks, creams, etc, are growing at a brisk pace. Among durable consumer products, the problem seems to be with automobiles, but not with two-wheelers. In 1997-98, between April and February, colour TV is expected to have grown in units by 45 per cent, PCs and hardware by 50 per cent, housing finance by 21 per cent, air-conditioners by 25 per cent, washing machines by 19 per cent and refrigerators by 15 per cent. The decline is in the automotive segment, primarily, among the mid-size passenger cars, and our long established producers of the antique and fuel inefficient Ambassador and Premier cars. Maruti-Suzuki showed a 5 per cent increase in sales. In the 11 months of 1997-98, cars as a whole have declined in units by 4 per cent, and this follows the decline of 19 per cent in 1996-97. Maruti-800 is still not available off the shelf. Larger cars are sold at a discount.

Brand Building in Indian Industry

S L Rao The difficulties of brand building in the Indian setting and the rewards that accrue to companies that strive to build additional values in their products so that they develop a preference in their customers' minds and become brands. Ownership and country of origin are not the issue. Value addition as recognised by the customer is.

Towards a National Competition Policy for India

S L Rao This paper suggests that India needs to evaluate existing legislation, rules and procedures from the point of view of establishing whether they are supportive of competition, what exceptions if any should exist, the conditions under which competition can be fostered and ensured, what new legislation, institutions, regulatory bodies, etc, need to be created.

INDUSTRY- The Indian Dinosaurs

The Indian Dinosaurs S L Rao The deed is done and the clock cannot be put back The Indian economy is open to foreign investment Competition has come into almost all sectors of industry, and will increase. This has already benefited the Indian consumer. It is making the economy more efficient in using resources. This process must accelerate. Indian companies have had six years to prepare themselves. A new breed of entrepreneurs is emerging who are able to operate successfully in this new changed environment Old companies which do not wish to change are our dinosaurs. It is in the interest of the country's future growth and competitiveness that they become extinct.

Refocusing India s Competitive Advantage in a Borderless World-Challenges to Corporate Sector

in a Borderless World Challenges to Corporate Sector S L Rao In the new borderless world we are moving towards, we must aim to raise the competitive advantage of all sectors in the nation. This requires a different set of government policies, hut industry and individual companies have also a great deal to do to improve their own competitive advantage, ranging from actions to raise productivity, brand building, emphasis on R and D as well as changes in attitude to the centrality of the customer and focusing on manufacturing as a discipline.

Labour Adjustment as Part of Industrial Restructuring-Human Dimensions of Liberalisation

Labour Adjustment as Part of Industrial Restructuring Human Dimensions of Liberalisation S L Rao Changes in labour legislation or 'exit' policies and compensation to workers through the National Renewal Fund are only of cosmetic value in bringing about industrial restructuring and labour adjustment. At the national level what the country needs are policies towards literacy, education, training and retraining of the workforce and making the workforce and managements accountable for their performance.

Negotiations in Business An Overview

S L Rao Identifying needs, developing alternative positions to satisfy them, building a package of discards and getting concessions in return are all essential parts of a good negotiating strategy in business.

Public Sector and the Marketing Concept

Identifying target consumers and their different segments, positioning products in the segments, developing differentiation in the product, being sensitive to product life in a changing environment

Innovative Marketing Strategies-Small Enterprises Fight Large Established Companies

A quick look at a variety of market segments in India shows that markets dominated at one time by subsidiaries and associates of world leaders have given significant shares to small enterprises that have adopted ingenious methods to enter the market and grow. There has been a flood of new entrepreneurs who have reached positions of eminence in the markets that they have entered. The examples discussed in this paper illustrate some of the reasons for the success of the small enterprises.

Marketing Management

S L Rao devoted a whole issue to Marketing Management in 1973 (Review of Management, August 25). The industrial climate in India has changed radically since then. There is a much larger base of production of consumer and industrial goods. There is a much larger middle class. The availability of media for advertising, and especially, television, has vastly improved in reach. But the most important change is that Indian industry is facing competition. In 1973, some of the consumer products industries had competitions and a total availability of production in excess of demand, giving the consumer a choice of brands. Even in those industries the competition was perhaps not in the same class as in the industrialised countries. Manufacturers were not able to go all out in improving products to meet rising consumer expectations because of restrictions in imports of materials, machinery and know-how, and their own unwillingness to invest in research and development. In the case of industrial products and consume! durables the position was that a licence to produce almost guaranteed a market for the production. Licensing was related to govern ment forecasts of market demand growth, which were many times wrong and not all licences got converted into production, or not in time.

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