ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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District Level Fertility Estimates for Hindus and Muslims

This paper provides estimates of crude birth rates and total fertility rates for Hindus and Muslims for 594 districts of India, and assesses the state and district level differentials across the country. It reconfirms that there is a regional variation in fertility in India, with higher fertility in the north than in the southern and western parts, irrespective of religious affiliation. However, unless we understand the regional as well as the undocumented cross-national migration of Muslims, the picture of higher population growth rates among Muslims, reported in the 2001 Census, is likely to persist in the future, in spite of the moderate decline in their fertility.

Indian Workers in UAE

The United Arab Emirates once formed a principal destination for Indian emigrants in search of jobs. But the fear of a rapid demographic imbalance has prompted a policy shift - 'emiritisation' - which has led to a decline in numbers of unskilled and skilled emigrant workers from India. This article examines the state of Indian emigrant labour to the UAE, the structure and conditions of employment.

HIV Patients: Knowledge and Sexual Behaviour Patterns

This study, carried out on HIV-positive persons, in Kerala shows that despite the increase in awareness of HIV transmission among people, there has not been a resultant change in high-risk behaviour. Thus, even though HIV risk information may be necessary, it is not sufficient by itself to motivate behaviour change.

Second National Family Health Survey

The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) has now come to be regarded as a storehouse of demographic and health data in India. The papers in this issue draw on the data generated in NFHS-2 on a range of social, health and demographic indicators. While the second round has come in for some criticism with regard to the quality of data, and the cost of the survey, it would be useful to undertake a repeat survey between the two censuses.

Respondents and Quality of Survey Data

This paper attempts to bring out how far the quality of response in the NFHS data varies with the changing educational levels of the respondents for standard demographic variables like age and sex. The analysis of the data shows that information gathered from uneducated respondents is more erroneous than that from educated groups.

Antenatal Care and AIDS Knowledge among Married Women

This study explores the relationship between antenatal care and AIDS awareness and knowledge of methods of prevention, and shows a strong connection between the two. But AIDS awareness and knowledge among married women is disturbingly low. Outreach and intervention efforts therefore need to focus on promoting comprehensive knowledge about prevention of AIDS, especially through the broadcast media.

Persistent Daughter Disadvantage

This paper examines trends and estimated sex ratio at birth (SRB) for India and child mortality (q5) risk, 1981 and 1991, and discusses how the 2001 Census results are foreshadowed. Earlier state-level (rural vs urban) analyses are extended to present these data at the district level in the form of maps. Multivariate statistical analyses exploring social and economic covariates that affect the likelihood of gender bias in death (female disadvantage in child mortality risk) have been conducted. The female disadvantage is evident in birth and death spread over India in the decade 1981-1991. Though infant and child mortality levels fell for girls and boys, gender differences persisted, and penetrated the hitherto egalitarian south. Masculine SRB that were seen only in urban areas of the north-west in 1981 have spread to urban areas of many northern states in 1991. Multivariate analyses suggest that between 1981- 1991, women's status variables become less associated with reduced gender bias. Modernisation variables suggest less association with gender bias, or that a substitution of pre-natal for post-natal elimination of unwanted daughters may be occurring. These findings are situated in the literature on gender, education, paid work participation, and marriage system changes in India.

Living Arrangements among Indian Elderly

This paper, based on data from National Family Health Survey conducted from April 1992 to September 1993, attempts to assess the pattern of living arrangements among the Indian elderly. Although family care for the elderly is still strong in India, their economic security emerges as a major issue in the absence of co-residence with children.

District Level Estimates of Fertility from India's 2001 Census

Over the last few decades, both fertility and mortality rates have been falling, but the decline of mortality was strong enough to offset the fall in fertility rates. The 2001 Census, however, gives a clear indication that India is passing through the last phase of fertility transition, moving towards moderate to low fertility. Fertility declines have not, however, been uniform across the country and the differential rates are mainly responsible for the differentials in population growth rates across states and union territories.

Social Assistance for Poor Elderly: How Effective?

The National Social Assistance Scheme and its components where they have been effectively introduced has gone a long way towards improving the lot of the poor elderly. However, there are several problems in the implementation of the schemes such as accurate identification of the beneficiaries and therefore a correct assessment of the financial burden on the governments. The scheme needs some urgent revamp.


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