ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

S D KulkarniSubscribe to S D Kulkarni

Scheduled Caste Elites and Social Change

Besides pointing to the need for understanding the range of permissibility in Islam these accounts also suggest that a proper understanding of kinship and related institutions cannot be acquired without taking into consideration the context of business of living. It is to be hoped that this volume will contribute substantially to expose the futility of polemics built up around the monolithic concept of Muslim community. Many of these articles have not been able to make full use of their potential in the form of data. They can be explored further. It is a moot point whe- tlier greater editorial inputs would have been able to bring in some uniformity of terms and concepts and greater com- parability. One has to be wary of over- editing undertaken in the name of excellence which often results in effacing the personality of an author and subtly distorts his arguments. But removal of some obvious errors of definition and some trimming in many places would have been welcome.

Encroachments on Forest Lands-The Experience in Maharashtra

The Experience in Maharashtra S D Kulkarni Some provisions of the Maharashtra government's Order of December 1978 regularising encroach- ments by adivasis on government fallow lands, grazing lands and forest lands are to be welcomed, How- ever, it contains a provision that encroachments found not eligible for regularisation should be vacated im- mediately, Since there are several deficiencies in the government Order and the lists of eligible encroachments have still not been finally prepared, any attempts to vocate existing encroachments will be unjust OVER 40 lakh adivasis in Maharashtra constitute above six per cent of the state's total population. Most of them live in the hilly parts of the state. Adivasis are found in 21 of the 26 districts of the state. However, about 60 per cent of the adivasis live in the three districts of Thane, Nasik and Dhule. Most of the adivasis live in rural areas. About 96 per cent of them live in rural areas as against 69 per cent of the total population. Most of the adivasis depend on agriculture for their livelihood. According to the 1971 Census, 92 per cent males and 95 per cent females, of the total working- age adivasi males and females, were working as cultivators, agricultural labourers, and workers in mining, quarry, forestry and dairy farming.

Bonded Labour and Illicit Money-Lending in Maharashtra-Review of a Report

in Maharashtra Review of a Report S D Kulkarni Though spokesmen for the Government of Maharashtra have more than once officially denied on the floor of the state assembly that the system of bonded labour does not exist in Maharashtra in any form, it is a well-known fact that the practice of bonded labour does exist in the State; and accounts of the practice, supported by unimpeachable data, have also been published. That the government itself was not quite convinced of its denials of the practice was evident in the appointment of a Committee by the state government to examine the problem of illicit money-lending in the state, hut which was also asked "to investigate whether the system of bonded labour still exists in the state.,. and to suggest ways and means to eradicate the system".

PERSPECTIVES

Nalini Pandit Classes in Marxist theory are not mere economic categories. They are living social groups whose attitudes and responses are determined by historical and cultural factors. The materialistic interpretation of history does not imply an exclusive emphasis on the economic factor to the comparative neglect of others. The purpose of formulating a social theory is to understand the attitudes and responses of different social groups to particular programmes.

Monopoly Trade in Tribal Areas and Its Politics in Maharashtra

December 17, 1977 Monopoly Trade in Tribal Areas and Its Politics in Maharashtra S D Kulkarni THE Government of Maharashtra, under the directions of the Government of India, prepared a Tribal Area Sub-Plan with the two long-term objectives of narrowing down the gap between the levels of development of tribal and other areas and of improving the quality of life of the tribal communities.1 Elimination of tribals' exploitation was recorded as one of the immediate objectives. It was mentioned that "all programmes which help in minimising incidence of exploitation such as those in the fields of marketing, credit, supply of consumer goods, and even informal rationing ensuring commodities at reasonable prices should have the highest priority."2 ''Malpractices in trading like under-weighing and unreasonable prices forcing the tribals to inextricably tie up their economy to an unscrupulous trader leading them to indebtedness and impoverishment and in many cases loss of his land and movable property" were cited as some of the exploitative practices,3 The Plan provided for the formation of Adivasi Co-operative Societies as an alternate source of finance and marketing in tribal areas. These societies were to purchase the commodities produced or foregathered by the tribals and to sell to them basic agricultural inputs.

MAHARASHTRA - Adivasi Sub-Plan A Mid-Term Appraisal

MAHARASHTRA, Adivasi Sub-Plan: A Mid-Term Appraisal S D Kulkarni FORTY LAKH Adivasis, who constitute nearly 6 per cent of Maharashtra's population, belong to the poorest strata of the society. They are concentrated in the hilly parts of the state and about 96 per cent of them live in rural areas. Majority of them are small cultivators and agricultural labourers. About 63 per cent of the Adivasi landholders hold less than 3 hectares of land while only 20 per cent hold more than 6 hectares. A large part of the land held by Adivasis is of inferior type and without irigation facilities. Except for displacement from lands and houses due to the construction of dams, Adivasis have enjoyed few of the fruits of planned development -since Independence.

Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes

Problems and Policies S D Kulkarni Report of the Commissioner for Scheduled Cartes and Scheduled Tribes, 1971-72 and 1972-73; New Delhi, Government of India, 1974, pp 410.

MAHARASHTRA- Alienation of Adivasis Lands-Government Not Serious

Alienation of Adivasis' Lands Government Not Serious IT is an established fact that large-scale alienation of lands belonging to the scheduled tribes into the hands of non- scheduled tribe persons has taken place in the post-Independence period. Adi- vasis all over India have been victims of this process.

Many Faces of Untouchability

Many Faces of Untouchability S D Kulkarni TlLAK once publicly declared that he would denounce even God if He accepted untouchability. Gandhi was also equally emphatic and wrote "Swaraj is as unattainable without the removal of the sin of untouchability as it is without Hindu-Muslim Unity". The Constitution of India abolishes untouchability and forbids its practice in any form. The enforcement of any disability arising out of "untouchability" is made an offence punishable in accordance with law (Article 17). In pursuance of this objective, Parliament passed the Untouchability (Offences)

DHULIA-Over a Century of Tyranny

March 9, 1974 has been replaced in several areas by gram, barley, and mustard, which in- volve much lower input cost and have a free market. An evidence of this is the sharp increase in the area under barley in Punjab and Haryana: in Punjab it has increased from 55,000 hectares last year to 73,000 hectares this year; the corresponding figures for Haryana are reported to be 1.5 and 2.5 lakh hectares. Barley needs less fertiliser and only two or three waterings compared to at least six for HYV-wheat. Further, barley fetched nearly Rs 130 per quintal last year, whereas wheat was to be procured at Rs 76. The demand for barley from distilleries and breweries no doubt contributed to this shift of acreage to it in some areas, but in other areas the alleged reasons are the take-over of wheat trade and the non-availability of inputs.
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