ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Urban Local Government in Pakistan-Expecting Too Much from Too Little

This paper examines the developmentalist performance of urban local government in Pakistan and shows how, over time, democratically elected local governments have been made impotent by democratically elected members to the higher, provincial and national assemblies. While extensive legislation exists which could permit the effective role of local government in development, severe financial constraints faced by these governments have meant that they are no longer involved in the process of development. Unless substantial structural measures are taken, in which the role of local government is redefined, it is unlikely that development at the local level will take place.

This IMF Business-Who Is Really Responsible

Who Is Really Responsible? S Akbar Zaidi Reluctance to take unpleasant measures like strict tax collection, cut in defence expenditure, propels Pakistan to rush to the IMF to seek financial assistance.

PAKISTAN- Political Economy of the Budget 1996-97

ECOWAS in Liberia. Postscript: Boris Yeltsin's election victory would strengthen US endeavours to extend NATO to cover Russia and former CMEA/Comecon countries. However, the undercurrent of Slavic antagonism to NATO may remain and will be accentuated by any setback to Yeltsin and possible succession by former communists in Russia.

PAKISTAN-BMF Shadow over Budget

BMF Shadow over Budget S Akbar Zaidi In its endeavour to satisfy the IMF demand to cut the budget deficit, the Pakistan government is burdening its citizens with additional taxes and depriving them of schools and hospitals.

PAKISTAN-Radio as Social Metaphor

Panchen had shown in the search for the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama (The Times of India, New Delhi ed, December To no one's surprise, the Lama acted in an honourable way. For, in March 1991, August 1993 and subsequently, he had sought China's nod to assist in the search for the new Panchen. Sadly for him, he drew a blank. And has now incurred Beijing's opprobrium for attempting 'to negate China's sovereignty' over Tibet and to 'cause disturbances' there (The Times of India, November 30,1995). In turn, not a few have questioned the locus standi of China's communist government in assuming the role of the Manchu emperor; more, in its complete disregard for the custom of involving the Dalai Lama in the identification process. And for motives that are far too patent to be disguised.

Two Years of Indifference

S Akbar Zaidi Setting up political and economic agenda according to the dictates of Washington and international financial agencies and ruthlessly crushing any dissent within the country are features of Benazir Bhutto's two years of governance.

Pakistan s Mini-Budget-Recipe for Disaster

The devaluation of the rupee announced in October along with other measures not only shows that the central bank of the country has little influence on decisions which affect the economy, but will derail the measures introduced in the 1995-96 budget which promised higher economic growth.

PAKISTAN-Why Devaluation Won t Help

Why Devaluation Won't Help S Akbar Zaidi Devaluation will push up inflation, already high, without necessarily improving the balance of trade. The real obstacle to higher exports today is not the rupee/dollar parity, hut the anarchic political situation in Karachi.

Pakistan s Economy in Deep Crises

Adherence to the Washington consensus may ensure the, seal of approval from multilateral agencies. But it does not bode well for the country's official economy which is in crisis while the unofficial sector is booming.

Without Perspective

socio-economic groups but also for the environmental damages will be a better analytical tool than the conventional BCR. Finally, A Sunder, in his-short paper 'Evaluation of Public Irrigation System', supports storage-based public irrigation systems using the familiar pro dam arguments. He ends up with a call to the irrigation department in each state to carry out careful assessment of their major irrigation projects if "they wish to continue in business"! Most of the arguments of the contending groups are based on the following three major factors: economics, ecology, and equity, The supporters, though recognise the ecological and equity implications of larger irrigation schemes, emphasise that these costs are insignificant proportion of the potential economic benefits of larger dams. Similarly, the opponents, accept the positive aspects of larger dams, but feel that such benefits cannot compensate for the ecological damages and equity costs. In order to find a middle ground between these two extreme viewpoints, the present volume presents three suggestions: (1) the environmentalists' advocacy of a series of smaller dams instead of a large scheme, (2) Dhawan's idea of 'appropriate' reduction in dam height (and hence, storage capacity), and (3) reduction in the number of large dams by applying a stricter clearance requirement based on a comprehensive BCR norm. However, since these suggestions have not escaped criticism, none of them is going to be of much help in the contat of the current crisis. Moreover, these solutions remain largely an academic exercise as the issue has long since gone out of the economic realm and entered in the realm of power politics where the outcome is strictly a function of the relative bargaining strengths of the contending groups.

Sindhi vs Mohajir in Pakistan-Contradiction, Conflict, Compromise

Contradiction, Conflict, Compromise S Akbar Zaidi The province of Sindh in Pakistan has witnessed acute polarisation between ethnic groups since 1947. In the post-independence period the political complexion of Sindh was radically altered by the arrival of Urdu speaking refugees or mohajirs. The conflict between Sindhis and mohajirs has accentuated in recent years. This paper seeks to identify and explain the reasons for the extreme polarisation between the two communities against the backdrop of the state's role.

On Perestroika and Glasnost

decline of these institutions some years later. Appropriate personnel management is particularly crucial in trading activities (money market operations). In this area of business, the volume at stake is enormous, fluctuations in prices are sharp, the potential for profit or loss is large and the obsolescence of expertise is rapid. If a bank is to hold on to its top trading teams it not only has to hoist salaries higher and higher but also has to effect a complete change in mentalities and thinking patterns, which necessarily is a long drawn out process. In creating and retaining highly rated and widely wooed expertise, the author recommends a multi- pronged strategy, including constant training and retraining, infusion of corporate value systems through regular planned interactions with top management, profit-sharing depending on the nature of the activities and a management model that combines the strength of team-work with recognition and rewarding of individual performance.

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