ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Reji K JosephSubscribe to Reji K Joseph

Economic Nationalisms of Asia

Globalisation and Economic Nationalism in Asia edited by Anthony D'Costa (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 2012; pp 288, £58.

Approval of GM Crops

Socio-economic considerations associated with the application of gene technologies have been a major concern, especially in developing countries, which are caught between the potentials of biotechnology for development, on the one hand, and their adverse socio-economic impacts, on the other. Globally, the experience of countries even with the most advanced regimes for incorporating these issues shows that addressing them effectively remains a challenge. The Cartagena Biosafety Protocol, the only global instrument for governance of genetically modified crops, does not address these considerations. Thus policy frameworks depend primarily on domestic concerns and priorities. Recent attempts to separate socio-economic assessment from biosafety assessment processes and conduct the two in parallel appear to embody a more pragmatic approach. The proposed Biotechnology Regulatory Authority of India Bill must draw upon this international experience and associated insight.

Policy Reforms in the Indian Pharmaceutical Sector since 1994

Liberalisation measures in the pharmaceutical sector have brought about major changes in the industrial licensing policy, import restrictions, foreign direct investment and production controls. It was feared that firms would shift from indigenous production to imports, especially of bulk drugs, and this concern was aggravated with the change in the patent law. This paper finds that these apprehensions have only partly come true. Exports of formulations have grown faster while their imports have not registered any jump, keeping the balance of trade positive. But there has been a decline in domestic production of bulk drugs and a growth in imports because the industry is moving away from intermediates and is focusing on bulk drugs at the high end of the value chain.

Estimating India's Trade in Drugs and Pharmaceuticals

There is the view that in the post-1991 period, India's exports of drugs and pharmaceuticals have grown rapidly - thereby confirming that India has much to gain by conforming to global drug patent standards. But a close reading of the data shows that the growth of the main drug exports has slowed, while that of imports - especially formulations - has accelerated.

Is GM Technology Desirable?

need not prevent genetic contami- Is GM Technology nation as the pollen can fly a great distance. In the wake of income losses arising out of such contamination, whom will the Desirable?
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