ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Rakesh BasantSubscribe to Rakesh Basant

Access to Higher Education in India

This paper explores the role of socio-religious affiliations in determining participation in higher education in India, and whether the importance of these affiliations changes over time. Using National Sample Survey data it follows the change in the hierarchy of participation within a binary probit framework over the years. Since being eligible for higher education is found to be the key factor in participation, it also explores the role of supply-side constraints by controlling for the distance to a secondary school. Econometric estimations for rural and urban areas indicate a vast rural-urban divide in the role of socio-religious affiliations. Eligibility seems to be the key factor in participation, and a better understanding of the constraints on school education is critical if participation in higher education is to be increased.

Who Participates in Higher Education in India? Rethinking the Role of Affirmative Action

This paper explores how an individual's participation in higher education is dependent on her religious affiliations, socio-economic status and demographic characteristics. It argues that an appropriate measure of "deficits" in participation should inform the nature and scope of affirmative action. The study emphasises the relevance, both for analytical examination and in policy formulation, of distinguishing between stock and flow measures of participation and of recognising the differences (or imbalances) in the eligibility for higher education across groups. On isolating the effect of socio-religious affiliation from other factors that may influence participation in higher education, what emerges is a suggestion that the deficits faced by some marginalised groups are not substantial. If reservation policy for these groups is to be justified only on the basis of low participation, it may require a review.

Intellectual Property Rights Regimes: Comparison of Pharma Prices in India and Pakistan

Almost all earlier studies comparing pharmaceutical prices in Pakistan and India have attributed higher prices in Pakistan mainly to the differences in the intellectual property rights regime between the two countries. That Pakistan permits product patents while India does not is factually incorrect. This paper argues that a weak patent regime combined with policies to reduce market concentration, curb monopolies and encourage bulk drug production, initially through public sector investments, and the size of the Indian market could have led to development of indigenous process capabilities. Meanwhile, in Pakistan, the same patent policy was not combined with policies adopted in India and since the market size is much smaller, it did not have the same effect.

Social, Economic and Educational Conditions of Indian Muslims

The report of the high-level committee on the social, economic and educational status of Muslims in India, also known as the Sachar Committee, is the first attempt to provide information on conditions in the community using large-scale empirical data. It provides the basis for an informed debate, from an equity perspective, on the conditions of the Muslims. An overview of the report.

Labour Market Deepening in India's IT

The Indian Information Technology (IT) sector has seen significant growth in terms of employment and revenue and is expected to provide quality employment to a large number of workers in the coming years. A more widespread participation of workers with different skill/education profiles, gender, regions, etc, would facilitate deepening of the labour market and eventually reduce costs. This paper hopes to provide a tentative understanding of the processes that have been important for the evolution of the IT labour market in India. It analyses NASSCOM and National Sample Survey (NSS) data to explore the processes that deepen the IT labour market in India. The analysis suggests that deepening is actually taking place, but the pace can probably be enhanced. Transition to the offshore model, growth of the ITES sector, competition and infrastructure-led movement of IT activity to smaller cities, and hiring of workers with diverse education backgrounds and of women workers have facilitated the deepening processes. However these processes need to be intensified.

Competition Policy in India

The objectives of competition policy in India are the creation of an active competitive environment and to aid and abet the process of creating globally competitive firms with enhanced investment and technological capabilities. To achieve these objectives, the government will need to play a proactive role. Rather than restricting themselves to issues conventionally covered by competition law, the authors consider, as part of competition policy, all those policy instruments that impinge on the promotion of competition in markets. Consequently, policies relating to trade, investment and technology development also come under the purview of competition policy insofar as they impinge on the process of competition. The formulation and implementation of an effective competition policy in the current context is a difficult task as it needs to be consistent with other policies which are transforming India into a liberal open economy.

Corporate Response to Economic Reforms

The impact of economic reforms can be assessed and policy fine-tuned by examining changes in corporate strategies in response to the reforms. This article analyses available evidence to find that industrial concerns have been consolidating their activities to retain competitiveness but research and development has suffered. Quality upgradation is a priority but product differentiation is favoured over improvement in marketing and distribution. Export orientation is limited.

Technology, Market Structure and Internationalisation: An Indian Perspective

Technology, Market Structure and Internationalisation: An Indian Perspective Rakesh Basant Technology, Market Structure and Internationalisation: Issues and Policies for Developing Countries by Nagesh Kumar and N S Siddharthan; Routledge and the United Nations University Institute for New Technologies, 1997; pp x + 165; price not stated.

Analysing Technology Strategy-Some Issues

Some Issues Rakesh Basant Dissatisfaction with the definition of industries has led to the defining and use of the concept of strategic groups which differentiate a group of firms from others within a given industry in terms of their strategic choices. This paper attempts a selective review of studies pertaining to technology strategy to explore parameters which can be used to define strategic groups within an industry. It is argued that the nature of technology, industry and firm characteristics have major implications for theory and action related to the content of technology strategy and for the processes through which it is developed and implemented.

Economic Diversification in Rural Areas-Review of Processes with Special Reference to Gujarat

Recent evidence of diversification of rural employment structure away from agriculture has generated interest among researchers. This article examines the determinants of rural non-agricultural activities in Gujarat within the wider perspective of other salient changes at the macro level.

Poverty, Informal Sector and Labour Market Segmentation in Urban Areas

Market Segmentation in Urban Areas Rakesh Basant Urban Poverty and the Labour Market: Access to Jobs and Incomes in Asian and Latin American Cities edited by Gerry Rodgers; International Labour Office, Geneva, 1989; pp XV + 257, 35 Swiss francs.

Data Base for Study of Household Manufacturing Sector-Problems of Comparability

Sector Problems of Comparability Rakesh Basant B L Kumar Scrutiny of macro data on household industries, an important segment of the rural non-agricultural sector, is useful for various purposes. However, the data base relating to the sector is surprisingly weak. Moreover there are several problems in compiling the data. This article reviews the data base related to household industries and attempts a comparison of the various data sources.

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