ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Women's Empowerment and Forced Sex within Marriage in Rural India

This paper sheds light on the role of key indicators of rural women's empowerment in India in influencing their risk of experiencing forced sex within marriage. Additionally, it also highlights the continuing influence of dowry on forced sex experiences within marriage. It argues for programmes that enhance women's autonomy within their marital homes and encourage education. Further, programmes and laws targeting the prevention of dowry exchange need to be simultaneously developed.

Measuring Agency among Unmarried Young Women and Men

In order to draw out and measure dimensions of agency (the capacity to make choices through the acquisition of a sense of self and a sense of personal competence) among unmarried young women and men, a survey was undertaken among young people in rural and urban slum settings in Pune. It looked at three key dimensions - mobility, decision-making and sense of self-worth. The findings show that agency was clearly constrained among youth in this setting, irrespective of gender and the rural-urban divide. Second, young women had significantly lower levels of agency than young men on mobility and decision-making, but appeared to have a significantly higher sense of self-worth. Third, the rural-urban differences were negligible and considerably narrower than gender differences. Fourth, older respondents were progressively more likely to report agency on all three dimensions. Age and education were consistently and positively associated with almost every measure of agency for both young women and men.

Maternal Health Care Services

This paper studies the pattern and correlates of utilisation of antenatal care services and assistance received during delivery in these three recently formed states, which have distinct geographical and topographical characteristics. The study throws up results specific to the particular features of the three states. It is necessary for the reproductive and child health programme to evolve a strategy giving due consideration to the geographical and socio-economic factors.
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