ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Attending to a Neglected Sphere

Attending to a Neglected Sphere Rajen Harshe Religion and Politics in Southern Africa edited by Carl Fredrik Hallencreuptz and Mai Palmberg; The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Uppasala, 1991.

Systemic Upheavals and Crises-Lessons for India

Systemic Upheavals and Crises Lessons for India Rajen Harshe In the light of the panorama of events in the socialist as well as the capitalist world India's overall development strategy will require critical appraisal and even reformulation. Only such an exercise will permit India to handle the problems of domestic development by effectively relating its foreign policy to the regional and international environments.

Dismantling Apartheid- Problems and Prospects

Problems and Prospects Rajen Harshe The capitalist classes within and outside South Africa have been forced to acknowledge the growing incompatibility between capitalism and the policy of racial discrimination. In fact, it may well be that the very need to protect capitalist interests in South Africa and allow for the development of capitalism there, will ensure a gradual move away from the system of apartheid.

India s Non-Alignment-An Attempt at Conceptual Reconstruction

An Attempt at Conceptual Reconstruction Rajen Harshe India's non-alignment as an instrument offoreign policy evolved through continuous interaction with domestic circumstances and the external environment This evolution was marked by staying power, a capacity to encounter volatile configurations of power and flexibility to incorporate changes demanded by circumstances.

Reflections on Organisation of African Unity

Rajen Harshe In May 1988 the Organisation of African Unity will be celebrating its twenty-fifth anniversary. Since its birth the OAU has been vulnerable to powerful divisive forces, both endogenous as well as exogenous. The endogenous forces have primarily stemmed from diverse foreign policy orientations of the member states, border disputes, ethnic and nationality problems. Ethnic secessionist movements have damaged internal cohesion within states and inter-state relations as well. The involvement of exogenous forces such as the neo-colonial manoeuvring of erstwhile colonial powers and superpower rivalry have further divided the member states. In this crisis-ridden situation the OAU has survived, demonstrating a commendable staying power.

Contradictions of African Development

Contradictions of African Development Rajen Harshe Contradictions of Accumulation in Africa: Studies in Economy and State edited by Henry Bernstein and Bonnie K Campbell; Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, London, New Delhi, 1985.

AFRICA- Guinea under Sekou Toure

AFRICA Guinea under Sekou Toure Rajen Harshe THE death of Sekou Toure on March 26 has put an end to a long drawn era of turbulent politics of independent Guinea. Such turbulence manifested itself through a number of sensational declarations on domestic and foreign policy, dramatic manner of denouncing the opponents, disdain for human rights, periodic purges within the Parti Democratique du Guinee (P D G) and paranoid style of Sekou Toure's leadership. With a rule of a quarter century, Sekou Toure displayed immense staying power by African standards, Among his contemporaries in former French Africa only Houphouet Boigny of Ivory Coast is still comfortably placed in the Presidential office. However, unlike Houphouet Boigny, Sekou Toure snapped off Guinea's ties with metropolitan France. embraced Marxism- Leninism, dreamt of building the United States of Africa with Kwame NKrumah, staunchly supposed the anti-colonial and anti-racist struggles and attempted to topple pro-West conservative regimes in Africa. To say the least, Toure was not as dull and colourless as other Francophone leaders like Senghor (Senegal). Bongo (Gabon) Houphouet Boigny and Ahidjo (Cameroon) who fell into a stereotypy by upholding the dependency equation with the Western imperialists. His controversial style of functioning and cordial equation with the Soviets became such a cause of concern for the moderate leaders that they conveniently began to dub him as a radical marxist leader. It would be worthwhile to assess the substance of Guinea's radicalism /socialism under Sekou Toure. A few glimpses at major policies during his rule would draw a tentative portrait of the man and his times, REVOLT AGAINST FRENCH COLONIALISM Sekou Toure's radicalism was quite evident since the early fifties when he was actively organising the P D G as a mass party with a militant tinge. The P D G had full blessings of the French Communist Party (P C F) which imparted the techniques of organisation to the former. Sekou Toure was associated with the P C F dominated trade union. Confederation Generale du Travail (C G T), and he also functioned as the Secretary General of the co-ordinating committee of C G T unions for the entire Fernch West Africa and Togo. As an outstanding trade unionist, he successfully launched the 67-day strike of Guinean workers in 1953 and compelled the French administration to concede their demands, such as forty hours of work per week 1953, He had also raised a Hag of revolt against French imperialism when France introduced loi-cadre reforms in 1956 to follow the the policy of 'divide and rule' in former French Africa.

WEST AFRICA- Prospects for Senegambia

Prospects for Senegambia Rajen Harshe THE formation of Senegambia is an important development but is not an unprecedented event. Like-minded states in West Africa have in the past resorted to federations, unions, and even mergers. For instance, the Mali Federation between Senegal and Soudan (1959) was formed even before the two countries formally became independent. What is more, such associations have cut across the linguistic boundaries as in the case of Ghana-Guinea union immediately after Guinea's independence in 1958.

WESTERN SAHARA-Nation in the Making

Nation in the Making Rajen Harshe THE Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) celebrated Its fifth anniversary on February 27. The Republic has been functioning with Haousa as its operational capital; the armed struggle of the Saharawi people under Polisario (Frente Popular para la Liberation de Saguia y Rio de Oro) which began in 1973 has yet to achieve its ultimate objective of pushing out the Moroccan annexationists from the Saha- ran soil. However, the Republic is now recognised by 40 nations and the question of the liberation of Western Sahara is receiving increasing attention internationally. For example, the majority of the members of the Organisation of African Unity have not merely offered de jure recognition to Sahara but in the forthcoming summit of the OAU in July the question of Western Sahara will have a prominent place on its agenda. The United Nations too has been deliberating over it since 1970 and the question was discussed in the recent New Delhi summit of non-aligned countries. Despite such mounting international pressure, King Hassan continues to claim Western Sahara as an integral part of Morocco; but this claim bas not helped him in arresting the steady liberation of occupied areas by the Polisario.

WESTERN SAHARA-Struggle for Recognition

exports to the industrial states. Over a hundred of the developing countries provide only one-fourth of semifinished and finished goods exported.

CHAD- Pause in Civil War

report (August 22), there has been yet another agreement to end the 13- year old civil war in Chad, with the leaders of the feuding factions agreeing to take part in a broad-based transitional government. The agreement was arrived at the end of a to-day summit of leaders of 11 groups which was held at Lagos, Nigeria. This is not the first time that Nigeria is mediating in the civil war in Chad, for only a few months ago, Kano in northern Nigeria had been the scene of another meeting of some of the rival warring factions in Chad, and where agreement had been reached about a new provisional government Chad is sparsely populated, semi- desert, and land-locked. Its population in the south is predorninemly animist or Christian while in the north Muslims are in a majority. Chad also stands at ethnic crossioads where Arabs meet black Africa, Its southern region, watered by perennial rivers like Chari, is densely populated and is also the source of Chad's principal crop, cotton. In contrast, the northern region is mostly desert where the semi-nomadic population wanders from oasis to oasis in search of fresh pastures.

WESTERN SAHARA-Prospects of Liberation

WESTERN SAHARA Prospects of Liberation Rajen Harshe ONE of the important factors that contributed to the fall of Daddah regime in Mauritania has been its failure to handle the repeated 'attacks of the Liberation Front of Western Sahara (Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia e Hamra and Rio de Oro

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