ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

R RadhakrishnaSubscribe to R Radhakrishna

Well-being, Inequality, Poverty and Pathways Out of Poverty in India

This paper first makes a comprehensive assessment of the performance of states in the post-reform period in terms of growth as well as reduction of income poverty and multiple deprivations. It then investigates whether there is any systematic relationship between growth and poverty and also between growth and inequality for the period 1993-94--2011-12. This analysis helps in understanding the proximate and structural factors underlying poverty and inequality. Based on the empirical analysis and review of approaches adopted by some of the Asian countries which have experienced a rapid reduction in poverty, the paper discusses pathways for India to hasten the process of poverty reduction.

G S Bhalla: A Tribute

All through his life, G S Bhalla was a strong believer in growth with equity and his contributions to understanding the dynamics of Indian agriculture are relevant even in the changed climate of post-reform India. The failure of land reforms and the sorry plight of small and marginal farmers faced with few alternatives in the non-farm sector was a recurring concern of his. A genial person, he will be fondly remembered by numerous students, research collaborators, and a large circle of friends.

Food and Nutrition Security of the Poor

What are the trends in food energy intake and malnutrition? Is there a need to moderate the trends from a nutritional perspective? How far does income growth lead to a reduction of malnutrition? Is there need for direct nutrition intervention programmes?

Chronic Poverty and Malnutrition in 1990s

The focus of the paper is on two interrelated but distinct issues of chronic poverty and malnutrition. It analyses the trends in extent, depth and severity of poverty and also malnutrition in rural and urban areas during the last few decades. The incidence of chronic poverty is higher than that of very poor in both rural and urban areas but the former is lower than severe malnutrition. Although the risk of malnutrition decreases with household income (standard of living index), elimination of poverty cannot ensure eradication of malnutrition. The incidence of child malnutrition is particularly high among poor households where mothers have poor nutritional levels, less education and poor access to antenatal care. The lowest incidence of child malnutrition is not in the richest but in the middle income states with progressive social policy. In the 1990s, with faster urban economic growth, urban poverty declined faster, but inter quintile urban inequality and rural-urban inequality worsened. Poverty, chronic poverty and malnutrition, together, got concentrated in a few geographical locations and among specific social groups.

Malnutrition in India

This paper analyses trends in malnutrition over the past two decades and shows that improvements in nutritional status have not kept pace with the reduction in poverty and the current level of malnutrition is unacceptably high. About half of the pre-school children are malnourished and are exposed to the risk of functional impairments. Malnutrition levels are uneven across states. Some middle income states such as Kerala and Tamil Nadu have comparatively better nutritional achievements than higher income states like Maharashtra and Gujarat. North-eastern states are comparatively better performing states and some of them have even out-performed Kerala.

Agricultural Growth, Employment and Poverty

Interdependencies in the food and labour markets are important for the development process. A strategy combining promotion of agricultural growth, productive non-farm employment and high levels of social development would be needed for labour-intensive growth in rural areas. There should also be substantial investment in human resource development for enhancing people's inherent earning capacity. The aim thus would be the generation of self-reliant employment.

Does Inflation Hurt the Poor More

Does Inflation Hurt the Poor More? R Radhakrishna C Ravi This paper analyses class specific inflation rates for 1989-90 and 1990-91 and concludes that the 1990-91 inflation hurt the poor more since food price rise was substantial in this period. It also shows shifts in pattern of inflation rate across expenditure classes between 1989-90 and 1990-91 and establishes inverse association between inflation rate and total expenditure in the latter period.

CAPITAL VIEW

The concept of health planning has become grossly distorted over successive five year plans; the Draft Five Year Plan, 1978-83, is no exception.
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