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Indo-Soviet Trade Protocol for 1984

Indo-Soviet Trade Protocol for 1984 R G Gidadhubli THE Indo-Soviet trade protocol for 1984 signed in New Delhi on December 9, 1983, coinciding with the visit of-Ivan Arkhipov, Deputy Prime Minister of the USSR, envisages a total trade turnover of Rs 3,840 crore which, if realised, would mean a 24 per cent increase over the actual two-way trade of Rs 3,100 crore 983. This should be a matter of satisfaction to the heads of the delegations of India and the USSR who negotiated the agreement The Soviet Union is one of India's major trading partners, accounting for about 20 per cent of our total foreign trade. Hence, India is interested in maintaining a high rate of growth of trade with that country in 1984. The trade protocol would enable India to expor: to the USSR goods worth Rs 2,000 crore consisting of cotton textiles, tea, coffee, knit-wear, shoe- uppers and many traditional and non- traditional manufactured goods. Exporters of cashew, black pepper, oil cake and cosmetics, who had been in a quandary, would be happy over the willingness of the Soviets to lift some of these items in the coming months.

SOVIET UNION-New Law on Labour Collectives

December 10, 1983 SOVIET UNION New Law on Labour Collectives R G Gidadhubli WITH effect from August 1, 1983, a law has come into force in the USSR 'About labour collectives and merging their role in the management of enterprises, institutions and organisations'. Yuri Andropov promulgated this law the day after his unanimous election to the post of the President of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on June 16, 1983. This law contains 23 articles specifying inter-relations between labour collectives and organs of State power and the principles governing the labour collectives' participation in the management of enterprises, institutions and organisations, G A Aliev, the first deputy of the President of the Council of Ministers of the USSR reported that this was the first law on labour collec ives in the history of the USSR.

Soviet Economy towards the Year 2000-The American View

The American View R G Gidadhubli White Soviet planners have a perspective plan for the Soviet economy for 15 to 20 years, not much opinion or discussion on it is available through Soviet economic literature. Attempts by the Western scholars to study and analyse the Soviet economy have, therefore, to be relied upon.

SOVIET UNION-Andropov on Soviet Economy after Brezhnev

January 22, 1983 TNPSTF) were arrested throughout the state when they tried to picket the official headquarters at the state and district levels. They have also been demanding relief from other non-teaching responsibilities like the cattle census, distribution of ration cards, getting persons to undergo sterilisation, etc.

India in the Soviet Union s Import Trade

R G Gidadhubli No study has been carried out in India on the nature and size of the Soviet market and India's performance in it. There is, therefore, hardly any idea of the share of India in the Soviet import market in respect of important items of Indias export, India's competitiveness in the Soviet market, the sources of Soviet imports and the major competitors for India and the quantum and trend of Soviet domestic production of items which are also imported. A deeper understanding of these issues is very essential in view of India's expanding trade with the Soviet Union.

SOVIET CENTRAL ASIA-Challenges and New Approaches

SOVIET CENTRAL ASIA Challenges and New Approaches SNOW-CLAD mountain peaks, thick greenery dominated by tall chinar trees, plenty of rose gardens and the cool weather reminded me of Srinagar city in the Kashmir valley in our country as 1 landed in the valley city of Dushanbe, the Capital of Tadjekistan in late April of this year. Tadjekistan is one of the four Central Asian Republics of the Soviet Union where 83 per cent of the inhabitants belong to the Tadjek and Uzbek nationalities, a good part of the older generation of which still believes in Islam. At present Tadjekistan assumes greater significance than ever before on account of its long border with Afghanistan in the south. Moreover, the Persian language serves as a common base for Tadjekistan, Afghanistan and Iran which enables easy communication among the peoples. The radio station at Dushanbe, the capital of Tadjekistan, regularly broadcasts to the people of Afghanistan in the Afghan language information about the major achievements of the peoples of Soviet Central Asia in the social and economic field. The broadcast also covers news regarding freedom of religion which is being effectively exercised by people in the Soviet Central Asia. However, in the 1920s and 30s, many Tadjeks and Uzbeks were reported to have fled from the Soviet Union and settled down in Afghanistan and they stem to be keeping their identity till today. Among other considerations, the Soviet Union's interest in keeping close and friendly relations with Afghanistan stems from the fact that the Pyanj river running along the mountain border between Afghanistan and Tadjekistan has immense hydro-electric potentialities and as per initial technical estimates of the Council for the Study of Productive Forces under the Academy of Sciences of the Tadjek SSR, 13 hydro power stations could be built with a total electricity generation capacity of over 11 million kw to produce over 98 billion kwh of electricity which could serve as a strong base for the economic development of the Soviet Central Asia in the future. Apart from these factors, Tadjekistan provides an interesting case in understanding the new challenges facing the Soviets as also the complex processes involved in socio-economic development of Soviet Central Asia in the contemporary period.

Grain and Superpower Politics

R G Gidadhubli THE United States seems to have lost the economic battle it waged in January 1980 against the Soviet Union by declaring an embargo on grain sales to the Russians in reaction against the Russian action in Afghanistan. The failure of the policy of grain embargo has brought to the surface the big money interests of American businessmen and the conflicts of interest within the developed capitalist world. These conflicts could be taken advantage of by other countries. In the present case, the Soviet Union, in particular, has been able to benefit from these internal US and international conflicts of interest.

American Assessment of Soviet Agriculture

September 13, 1980 the Polish economy would be in a position to extricate itself from the crisis which is structural. MANY UNCERTAINTIES How will the workers respond to an inevitable inflation eating up their current wage rise? How will they react to the government's manoeuvres to maintain the status quo in which it enjoys the monopoly of power? What will happen when the free trade union formed so far clashes with the state-con- trolled trade unions? What will the workers do when the rest of East Europe puts pressure on the Polish leadership over the "democratisation" process spilling over to their own countries? How will Soviet Union react if and when the reforms are allowed to be implemented which will certainly give a boost to dissident movements elsewhere and erode the existing monolithic power structure?

EDUCATION-Soviet School System Problems and Prospects

Soviet School System : Problems and Prospects R G Gidadhubli ON July 1; 1978, the All Union Con- gress of Teachers in the Soviet Union concluded its four day session in which 4,000 representatives of 4.5 million teachers from various parts of the country participated.1 That this Congress, held after a decade, was not just an ordinary one was evident from the fact that it was inaugurated by Leonid Brezhnev himself and that the minister of education of USSR and of union republics, eminent professors, pedagogues and social scientists actively participated in the deliberations. The CPSU sind the Soviet government reminded the teachers that "the major task of the schools in the present stage is the systematic realisation of the decisions of the XXV Congress of the CPSU about further development and perfection of people's education, increasing the effectiveness and quality of teaching, upbringing of pupils and preparing them for life and labour".3 On the academic front, Soviet achievements in education are remarkable

The Brezhnev Constitution

The Brezhnev Constitution Compared to the Stalin Constitution of 1936, the new Brezhnev Constitution of the Soviet Union, proclaimed on October 8, 1977, has a wider focus on the country's economic system and hence has greater economic implications. On property rights and profit, in state farming, collective and co-operative farming, and private farming, on decentralisation of decision making process in industry, on wages and profits

Wheat and Soviet-American Politics

Changing Priorities JUDGED by any standard, whether of gross expenditure or of concrete achievement, Punjab performance in planning has been praiseworthy. In recent years the actual outlays have invariably exceeded the originally sanctioned amounts, the upward revision having been approved by the Planning Commission on the basis of past performance and additional capabilities. The annual Plan outlay for the current year, for instance, earlier stood at Rs 161.09 crores, but on February 1 last It was raised to Rs 163.3 crores after talks with the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission. The revised figure marked an advance of about Rs 37 crores over the previous year (1974-75), History has repeated itself in the proposed outlay for the state's 1976-77 plan, the proposed out- kiy having been stepped up to Rs 219 crores

Soviet-American Economic Ties

Soviet-American Economic Ties R G Gidadhubli WHETHER the third summit meeting between Brezhnev and Nixon last July broke any new ground in eliminating the nuclear arms race or not, it did demonstrate the desire of the two countries to come closer on the economic front. The first summit in 1972 had opened a new era in Soviet-American relations as a result of which trade between the two countries increased significantly. During the second summit the two countries had signed agreements to cover agriculture, transport and communications. The third summit culminated in the signing of a ten-year agreement to facilitate economic, industrial and technical co-operation. The US and the USSR have signed more agreements in the past two and a half years than during the previous 30 years after the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries.

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