ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Puzzle of Indian Urbanisation

In India, unlike other countries, migration started to decelerate when the urban population was well below a quarter of the total population. This principal puzzle contains within it other intriguing issues, including, for instance, why more Indians do not migrate voluntarily in response to the growing divergence in economic opportunities between rural and urban areas. There may be better explanations for our low migration rates than wage differentials.

Plan, but Do Not Over-plan

Drawing on six decades of India’s experience with planning, the main lesson for the NITI Aayog is that it must devote as careful thought to the planning process as to the strategic plan itself. It must recognise that it is not engaged in a technical exercise, but one that involves a deep understanding of people and organisational behaviour. The government and the Prime Minister too must realise that they have to play a significant role in articulating an economic vision, as opposed to endorsing suggestions put up by the bureaucracy.

Of Calories and Things

There are two main criticisms of the poverty line, which are in some ways interrelated. The first is that even though the poverty line ensured the consumption of the normative calorie intake in 1973-74, it no longer does so. The second questions the very use of calorie intake as a measure of nutritional adequacy, arguing that such a unidimensional measure may do more harm than good in the measurement of poverty and design of poverty alleviation instruments. This paper seeks to address these criticisms of the extant methodology of deriving the poverty line from an economist's perspective and attempts to bring out some issues which call for further research.

Maxi Devaluations and Contraction

dietary changes associated with economic growth the world over. This implies that as the pressure on the direct (per capita) demand for cereals as food eases, indirect demand will increase, as increasing meat and milk demand exerts in turn a demand for cereals as livestock feed.7 In addition, the results indicate that incorporating regional specificity in demand analysis matters ignoring it may lead to aggregation biases.

Cooper s Contractionary Devaluation Hypothesis-A Note

A Note Pronab Sen In recent years a number of studies have questioned the orthodox proposition that a devaluation is always expansionary. The implication of a non-expansionarydevaluation is that in such cases not only are complementary contractionary monetary and fiscal policies unnecessary for making the devaluation 'stick', they may actually prove to be undesirable in the sense that investments even in the traded goods sector may get retarded and thus delay the process of moving to a new and more export- oriented economic structure. Unfortunately, these studies have had virtually no effect on the 'conditionalities' imposed by the Fund-Bank establishment and contractionary policies continue to he routinely prescribed along with somewhat less controversial 'exchange rate adjustments'.

Foreign Direct Investment-A Solution to BOP Problems

Foreign Direct Investment A Solution to BOP Problems? Pronab Sen This paper addresses the central problematic: Do FDI inflows improve the short-run balance of payments or do they require additional foreign exchange funding in the form of foreign borrowings or through depletion of foreign exchange reserves? The answer to this question is crucial not only for formulating a policy structure for foreign investments but also in determining the position that developing country governments should take with regard to pressures for liberalising controls on foreign equity.

Indian Software Exports An Assessment

Pronab Sen Until 1991-92 there was virtually no policy support for the software sector Since then the government has taken a number of positive steps, hut hesitantly. The general perception about the software industry however continues to be that it will rapidly attain international stature without any policy support.

Telecommunications in India-Imperatives and Prospects

Telecommunications in India Imperatives and Prospects Pronab Sen This paper examines the role of telecom in the economic reform process and the steps that have heen taken to ensure that this infrastructure is made available to the extent that is required.

Monitoring Budget Deficits of Government-An Alternative Methodology

An Alternative Methodology Pronab Sen This paper argues that the Technical Note circulated by the ministry of finance in 1990 on monitoring govern- ment's budget deficit and two subsequent papers on this topic

Growth Theories and Development Strategies-Lessons from Indian Experience

Lessons from Indian Experience Pronab Sen The objective of this study is two-fold: (a) to re-establish the macro-economic foundations of development strategy; and (b) to reiterate and re-emphasise a conventional, and now largely ignored, wisdom

Rupee-Rouble Exchange Rate

Over the last yew years the Indian rupee has been steadily depreciated against the rouble, but there is no publicly available analysis of the effects of this depreciation.

Women in Soviet Central Asia

quick reference for a brief but balanced review of what has been happening in eastern Europe. Notes [Portions of this review are taken from a paper 'Bukharin, Perestroika and Eastern Europe' presented by me at a seminar organised by the Social Scientist on 'History of Socialist Societies and the Implications of Current Reforms1 at New Delhi on March 24-26, 1989.] I Timothy Garton Ash, 'Reform or Revolution', New York Review of Books, October 27, 1988. The third of three articles; the earlier two appeared in NYR of October 13, THE emancipation of women had always been an issue of central concern to Marx and his disciples. The early Marxist literature is replete with references to the exploitation of women and the necessity of ending this exploitation for achieving a truly socialist system. True to their framework of analysis, the early Marxian authors viewed this exploitation as arising from the same set of socio-economic factors as all other forms of exploitation. The causal chain, the theory ran, began from the need to control 'labour power' in a system characterised by the ownership of non-labour means of production. Thus, the emergence of the family and of slavery were not contemporaneous merely by coincidence, but because the two were simply different institutional arrangements for achieving the same end. Later developments in the organisation and modes of production led to more sophisticated means of labour control in the extra-family sphere, but the family continued to remain as the basic mechanism for the exploitation of women.

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