ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Some Employment and Unemployment Characteristics of Rural Women- An analysis of NSS Data for West bengal, 1972-73

Characteristics of Rural Women An analysis of NSS Data for West bengal, 1972-73 Pranab Bardhan In rural employment planning, it is particularly important to understand and quantify the specific employment and unemployment characteristics of rural women, not merely because unemployment is much more acute for women than for men, but also because the female labour market has some special features as a result of which the nature of employment programmes for which they may be available are sometimes quite different from those for men.

Authoritarianism and Democracy-First Anniversary of New Regime

First Anniversary of New Regime Pranab Bardhan A year ago the miscalculations of an ill-informed dictator and the good common sense of the mass electorate resulted in the unexpected restoration of political democracy. Not so unexpected has been the short-lived nature of the subsequent euphoria. Compared to the proverbial timelessness of India, things have been happening rather fast on the political scene and not all the dramatic twists and turns fall in line with some of our pre-conceived theorising about the polity. The present article is both an analysis of the past and a prognosis : it analyses the political and economic factors that led to the crisis whose most explicit manifestation was the Emergency; and it foresees that given the Indian reality, political demo- cracy, even if it survives is likely to be highly unstable.

CAPITAL VIEW

of Kerala Joan P Mencher The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of agrarian relations in the two main rice regions of Kerala, Kuttanad (a low-lying area covering parts of Alleppey, Kottayam and Quilon Districts) and Palghat, in order to examine one, forces interfering with production and, secondly, the elms relations that serve to impede a more equitable distribution of food and other commodities. The paper describes some of the striking contradictions in each area, and offers some tentative predictions for their future development.

Variations in Extent and Forms- of Agricultural Tenancy

This paper brings together data on tenancy and distribution of ownership and operational holdings, on unemployment and wage rates, on credit market conditions and on various agronomic conditions.

Totems and Taboos of Left Mythology

Pranab Bardhan Ashok Rudra IT would be difficult to deny that in this 'country's political thinking the left-right distinction has increasingly become less a scientifically valid classi- ficatory tool of politico-historical analysis and more a matter of attaching labels, of branding persons or parties on considerations which are of the nature of dogmas. The idea of left and right, of progress and reaction, has a history of more than two hundred '.years and if one'were to apply criteria derived from the tradition of thought of "Scientific Socialism" to present-day "India, one would perhaps classify as leftist economic policies or political programmes (or persons or parties working for them) that aim at a reorganisation of the society so as to lessen the political power of and finally eliminate classes that are at present dominating the society and deriving maximum advantage from its present organisation and to increase the political power of the exploited toiling masses, of which the organised industrial and white-collar working classes no doubt constitute; an important segment but also consist predominantly of poor peasants and landless labourers. If one were thinking, each time one made the left-right distinction, of those two opposed class interest groups, keeping in full view the internal contradictions that unavoidably exist within the two groups, one would probably be making the distinction meaningfully. But much too often that is not how it is done.

Variations in Agricultural Wages-A Note

Variations in Agricultural Wages A Note In this short note we present, and try to interpret, two different types of variations in agricultural wages which may seem somewhat puzzling. One is the variation in the wage rates received by two types of agricultural wage-earners, the other is the variation of real wage rates in two states, Punjab and Kerala, We discuss them separately in the following two sections.

Green Revolution and Agricultural Labourers- A Correction

A Correction Pranab Bardhan IN Section V of my paper "'Green Revolution' and Agricultural Labourers" estimated the percentage of rural people below a minimum level of living (defined as Rs 15 per month per capita at 1960-61 prices). The estimates of this percentage for rural India as well as for the different 1967-68 were presented in Table 11

Green Revolution and Agricultural Labourers

The New Orthodoxy IT lias become part of the new orthodoxy in official circles in India that the only feasible as well as the surest way of improving the economic conditions of the weaker sections of the rural population (like agricultural labourers) is to encourage faster agricultural growth through subsidisation of the chemical- biological breakthrough in production and through the promotion of agrarian capitalism in the countryside. Let the enterprising capitalist fanners fatten themselves and then the agricultural labourers can thrive on , the bigger crumbs off their table: this, in effect, is the New Agricultural Strategy that has dominated the Government agricultural policy in the 1960s. Confidence in the essential soundness of this policy has been nurtured by the glowing accounts by visiting foreign friends about the all-round prosperity they have seen while driving through their favourite Punjab villages, and by occasional Government or semi-Government reports about the high cash wage rates that the agricultural labourers supposedly demand and get nowadays. The only major concern seems to be that the Green Revolution is not spreading at a fast enough rate to paddy agriculture; but there too it is only a matter of time before some Rice Research Institute somewhere, working overtime on Rockefeller Foundation patronage, hits on exactly the right strains of high-yielding rice suited to the soil-climate complex of the paddy regions in India.

Trends in Land Relations-A Note

A Note Pranab Bardhan Any paper on the Indian agrarian structure must start with a disclaimer. In a country with such diverse social and economic institutions and widely divergent patterns of change in different areas it is nearly impossible to generalise. In fact for a student of land institutions in India it is too easy to be lost in a bewildering mass of diversities.

Agriculture in China and India-Output, Input and Prices

Agricultural production in China and India has grown at fairly similar rates between 1952 and 1967. Chinese yields per hectare, however, exceed those of India by a significant margin but this has been true for a long time. In the provision of inputs, (he Chinese performance has been much better than the Indian, Chinese price policy has also been more favourable towards the agricultural sector.

A City of Sleepwalkers

Coming back to Calcutta after four years abroad is an experience.I don't mean the obvious physical discomforts of daytoday Calcutta life that hits you in the face like gusts of summer heat as you come out of the airconditioned Park Street restaurant.

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