ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Social Structure, Ideology and Language-Caste among Muslims

Caste among Muslims Pervaiz Nazir The question whether the concept of caste can be applied to the system of social stratification of a community professing a faith other than Hinduism has often been posed in the abstract, ascribing an 'essence' to caste, as well as according a determinative role to religious ideology independent of the. context in which it is articulated. This paper is an attempt to address this question through a linguistic analysis of some of the categories used in the context of caste, and argues that though caste existed among Muslims in traditional rural Punjab, caste labels became increasingly important only to the extent that the individual was able to acquire an identity independent of the clan or lineage to which she or he belonged.

Class Formation in Pakistan- Some Preliminary Comments

metropolitan offices. Banks had to 'earn' these entitlements by opening a stated ratio of rural offices. Between 1973 and 1977 this policy was slightly relaxed for metropolitan and urban centres with high deposit potential. The norm of population per office for these centres was lowered from 1,000 to 5,000. Also, banks with more than 60 per cent of their offices in rural and semi- urban areas were permitted to open 1 office in a metropolitan or urban centre for every 2 new rural/semi-urban offices. Banks with a lower proportion of rural offices were allowed one metropolitan/ urban offices centres for every 3 offices opened in the other centres. In 1977, the formula was changed to 1:4 (metropolitan/ urban rural/semi-urban) uniformly. The formula approach was given up in the following years, with the emphasis shifting to the extension of banking to 'deficit districts' (ie, where the population per bank office was higher than the national average). The allotment of licences for branches in urban and metropolitan centres has been severely restricted and done purely at the discretion of the Reserve Bank.

Transformation of Property Relations in the Punjab

Transformation of Property Relations in the Punjab Pervaiz Nazir Prior to its annexation by the British in 1849, Ian ' in the Punjab was held in common by a larger pro- prietary body. However, the relationship of this larger proprietary body to that of the individual cultivating units has received less attention. This paper describes this relationship and the subsequent investment of proprietary rights in individual cultivating units during the mid-nineteenth century.
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