ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by Panchanan DasSubscribe to Panchanan Das

Occupation, Earning, and Gender

This study analyses the employment distribution of the working-age women by occupations across their activities in usual principal status in the Periodic Labour Force Survey for 2017–18 by taking into account the household-specific factors and workers’ personal characteristics by using a multinomial logit model. The study infers that gender differences in returns to schooling are in favour of female workers, but they earned less than male workers in almost every occupation and employment status. The effect of education is stronger in selecting high-paying jobs.


Wage Penalty in Temporary Employment in India

The extent of wage penalty between workers in permanent and temporary jobs at different locations of the wage distribution is examined by evaluating the impact of workers’ characteristics and education. The differential effects of the covariates on wage gap at different locations of the wage distribution are estimated by applying the quantile regression model. After estimating the differential effects, the relevance of the glass ceiling or sticky floor hypothesis has been tested with Indian data. The wage gap between temporary and permanent employment is decomposed into the endowment effect based on the difference in labour market characteristics and coefficient effect based on the difference in returns for the same characteristics.

Gender Wage Discrimination across Social and Religious Groups in India

This paper focuses on gender wage discrimination across different social and religious groups by addressing the fact that the observed productivity differences between women and men are not only responsible for the huge gender wage gap in India, but for the same levels of productivity, women have been paid lower wages than men. Gender discrimination, superimposed on caste and religious discrimination, accentuates the social exclusion of women belonging to certain castes and religions. We try to reveal how the incidence of the gender pay gap among different religious and social groups changed during the first decade of economic reforms. The presence of substantial wage differentials between men and women workers in the Indian labour market cannot be explained simply by the gender gap of human capital. Discrimination was more severe for women workers in the backward ethnic groups as compared to other women workers.

Wage Inequality in India


The web version of this article corrects a few errors that appeared in the print edition.

Wage differentials are present among various groups and sectors of the economy. The primary motivation of this paper is to investigate the structure of wage inequality and employment in India with the 61st round (2004-05) household survey on employment and unemployment conducted by the National Sample Survey Office. The study measures comprehensively different dimensions of wage inequality as observed in the Indian labour market by using the Gini inequality index. In analysing the structure of wage inequality it considers three major sectors, the public, private formal and informal sectors. Wage inequality in the private formal sector is higher than the inequality even in the informal sector. Wage differentials in India are higher in rural as compared to urban areas, and are higher among women than among men workers. Simple decompositions of wage inequality by sectors reveal that a significant part of wage inequality is accounted for by inequality among individuals between rather than within sectors for every type of working person.

Productivity and Effi ciency in the Jute Industry

Contrary to Anusri Pal and Pinaki Chakraborti's assessment ("Indian Jute Industry in the Globalisation Era: Structure and Performance", EPW, 5 March 2011) of the structural change and growth performance of the jute industry in India, the industry experienced a lower level of effi ciency during the 1980s, which improved since the early 1990s, though without signifi cant technological progress.

Economic Reform, Output and Employment Growth in Manufacturing Testing Kaldor's Hypotheses

The basic object of this paper is to explore what role manufacturing output growth has had on overall economic growth and on employment growth in manufacturing industries in India in the pre- and post-deregulation phases of the country. In the 1960s Kaldor put forward certain hypotheses linking growth of output, employment and productivity in the manufacturing sector. Testing those hypotheses with Indian data may illuminate the nature of the growth process in Indian manufacturing. In particular, they may shed new light on differences in regional patterns of growth in India over the period 1970-71 to 2002-03. The paper focuses on two states, namely, West Bengal and Gujarat, experiencing different types of growth.

Growth and Structural Change in the Economy of Gujarat, 1970-2000

Gujarat appears to be a paradigmatic example of the most disconcerting developments of the 1990s in India. There was no increase in organised sector employment during the 1990s. The primary sector, particularly agriculture, has been stagnant or even declining. By contrast, the secondary and tertiary sectors have shown statistically significant and high rates of growth over the whole period. But the factory sector in Gujarat has undergone a higher degree of concentration than in the rest of India. More importantly, the capital-intensive nature of the growth in the factory sector has been even more pronounced in Gujarat. Looking at the sectoral growth rates, it seems that the economy of Gujarat grew in an unbalanced and volatile fashion over the period under consideration. There has been a significant transformation in occupational structure. But that transformation is out of step with the change in incomes derived from different sectors. A mismatch in the movement of income and employment shares is stronger in Gujarat than the rest of India. Further, the people living in rural Gujarat have become significantly proletarianised.

Back to Top