ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Public Distribution System, Food Subsidy and Production Incentives

Production Incentives P S George The public distribution system (PDS) in India has close links with food security for the vulnerable segments of the population, budgetary support for food subsidy and the price policy. This paper reviews some aspects of the operation of the PDS and raises some policy issues with regard to scope and coverage of PDS, production incentives to farmers, and the amount of food subsidy.

Dilemma of Cost of Cultivation in Kerala

P S George There are a number of problems in estimating the cost of cultivation of individual crops, especially in relation to identification of the items of cost, valuation of different items and specification of the reference group of cultivators. The scope of this paper is limited to a discussion of the conceptual issues involved in the treatment of land value in the estimates of cost of cultivation of important crops in Kerala.

Emerging Trends in Size Distribution of Operational Holdings in Kerala

Emerging Trends in Size Distribution of Operational Holdings in Kerala P S George THE land reform measures introduced in Kerala, especially those initiated in 1957 and followed up with the Agrarian Relations Act 1961 and the Land Reforms Act 1964 are considered to be the most progressive land reforms legislations enacted in India.1 These measures had consolidated the different land legislations and land reform measures which existed in Travancore, Cochin, and Malabar and also provided a new scope and direction to the whole concept of land reforms. The main objectives of these measures were to introduce institutional transformation to achieve some level of efficiency of land utilisation and equity in agricultural production, and to ensure ownership rights to the actual users of land. The main pillars of land reform measures included abolition of landlordism, changes in the structure of holdings, especially the size structure, and removal of inequalities in the distribution of holdings through imposition of ceilings on holdings and redistribution of surplus land.

Some Aspects of Public Distribution of Foodgrains in India

Foodgrains in India P S George Public distribution of foodgrains in India has resulted in some redistribution of income. Since the small farmers were left out from the levy obligations, whatever this categorys marketed surplus, it could get the benefit of a higher open market price. Because of the subsidy element, the food deficit areas have received an indirect income transfer from the Central government. Further, consumers depending on open market purchases (very often the quality conscious higher income groups), have contributed partially towards the ration income of consumers who purchase foodgrains from the fair price shops.
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