ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

P M KulkarniSubscribe to P M Kulkarni

Data for Research into Health Inequality in India

India has a long history of collecting data on population and health, but it is neither integrated nor systematic, especially in small geographical areas. The National Population Register should be completed, completeness of the coverage of the Civil Registration System should be ensured, and their linkage should be established with census and other household surveys in India to document health disparities by class, caste, and region.

Religious Differentials in Fertility in India: Is There a Convergence?

Analysis of the data from the three rounds of India's National Family Health Survey shows that fertility transition is continuing in all the major religious groups of India. Substantial declines have occurred in fertility over the period encompassing the three rounds. The use of contraceptives has become more widely prevalent with a majority of couples wanting to stop childbearing at two or three children. Spatial variation is also noticeable with religious differentials being very small or negligible in some states. At the national level, religious differentials are narrowing though it is difficult to say when a convergence could occur. However, fertility for all religious groups is expected to fall further towards the replacement level and possibly to below this level.

Population Growth, Fertility, and Religion in India

This paper first addresses the issue of religious differentials in population growth in India and then examines differentials in fertility. Analysis of data from the second National Family Health Survey shows that differences in fertility, especially between Hindus and Muslims, are not explained by differences in socio-economic characteristics, as argued by many observers. This is true of differentials in contraceptive practice as well. However, the differences appear to be a passing phase in the process of fertility transition. Since all religious communities in India have experienced substantial fertility declines and contraceptive practice has been well accepted, it is expected that fertility levels among communities would converge over time.

Gender Preference Contraceptive Prevalence

In India there are marked state and regional variations in gender preference. Its effect on contraceptive prevalence is far more complex than has been understood. Regions of strong gender preference do not necessarily show an adverse impact on contraceptive prevalence. What are the reasons for the lack of an expected concordance at the various levels of gender preference?
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