ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Household Expenditure on Higher Education

Data from the two recent National Sample Survey Office surveys are analysed to provide estimates of higher education expenditure and loans. Households that participate in higher education spend 15.3% of their total expenditure on average in rural areas; in urban areas, they spend 18.4%. This share is larger in southern states, where individuals are more likely to be pursuing technical education in private, unaided institutions and are more likely to have outstanding borrowings for education. At the all-India level, poorer households are less likely to borrow for higher education, possibly because they are risk-averse and uncertain about future returns.

State Finance Commissions and Rural Local Bodies

The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts, 1992 have added a new dimension to fiscal federalism and decentralised public finance in the Indian federal system. The structure of intergovernmental fiscal relations and transfers necessarily will have to undergo significant changes. Their provisions relating to the creation of state finance commissions (SFCs) to rationalise fiscal relations at the sub-state level and make periodic fiscal corrections assume significance in this context. This paper seeks to critically review the recommendations of five SFCs, viz, Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan and West Bengal, on fiscal devolution with reference to rural local bodies - the panchayati raj institutions (PRIs).
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