ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Niranjan SarangiSubscribe to Niranjan Sarangi

Migration, Employment Status and Poverty

This paper analyses the pattern of migration in urban areas and its socio-economic correlates. The analysis is based on the National Sample Survey's reports of employment and unemployment pertaining to the latest rounds, which provide information on migration. Economic deprivation is not the most critical factor for migration decisions, even for seasonal migrants. People migrate out of both poor and rich households, although the reasons for migration and the nature of jobs sought by them are different. Rural-urban migrants have a greater risk of being below the poverty line than the urban-urban migrants, but both report a lower risk than non-migrants. The probability of a person being poor is low in a large city compared to any other urban centre, irrespective of the migration status, age, number of subsidiary activities undertaken, etc. The results indicate that migration has been a definite instrument of improving economic well-being and escaping from poverty. The probability of being poor is much less among the migrants compared to the local population, in all size classes of urban centres.

Issue of Urban Exclusion

This article examines the rationale for excluding urban areas from the scope of guaranteed employment, given socio-economic deprivation and vulnerability in small and medium towns. The lack of employment has affected their demographic growth, leading to distortions in the urban hierarchy. The possibility of utilising the educated unemployed in non-manual work is explored.
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