ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Cooperative Movements in India

Tracing the history of cooperative movements in India, and stressing their importance for Indian agriculture, a set of recommendations are offered arguing for institutional changes to promote cooperatives.

Declining Cattle Population

There has been a major change in the composition and mix of the cattle population in India. The proportion of male cattle has declined sharply as farmers do not fi nd it worthwhile to maintain bullocks to plough holdings that are becoming smaller and smaller. The composition of the milch cattle population too is changing. The proportion of the indigenous breed is falling and that of the exotic/cross-bred is growing. There are differences between states in the pattern of change, but those who seek protection of the cow and a ban on cow slaughter seem to be unaware of what has been happening.

Economic Origin of Regional and Caste Parties

Political scientists have proffered many reasons for the decline of the Congress and the rise of regional/caste parties, but one set of reasons that has been overlooked has to do with the very nature of planning from the Second Plan onwards under which the provision of basic services was neglected.

Measurement of Poverty: In Retrospect and Prospect

Attempts to measure poverty in India date back to pre- Independence, but it was only from the late 1950s onwards that a systematic effort has been made to define the poverty line and then estimate the population of the poor. A survey of the evolution of the poverty line with a focus on the recommendations of two important committees - the 1993 Lakdawala Committee and the 2010 Tendulkar Committee - which effected important changes in the measurement process.

Implications of the Loan Waiver for Rural Credit Institutions

The loan waiver will lighten the debt burden of the farmers. But in the long term this will adversely affect the rural credit institutions that extend loans to farmers. A discussion of the likely fallout.

Microfinance Regulation Bill: A Rejoinder

 Microfinance Regulation Bill: A Rejoinder Nilakantha Rath It is inappropriate to make trusts or registered societies or cooperative credit societies function as wholesalers in a regime of microfinance institutions. It is better to provide the self-help groups and their federations with statutory status under a liberal cooperative law. This would be the proper approach to extension of credit to such elements in the rural society.

On the Microfinance Regulation Bill 2007

The Microfinance Regulation Bill 2007, which seeks to regulate trusts and societies that help or promote self-help groups, is completely unnecessary since it does not address the needs of the SHGs. Legislation that enables these groups to register as cooperatives and borrow from banks or helps them to form private limited companies under the Company (Amendment) Act 2002 to facilitate borrowing from commercial banks would be more helpful.

Revival of Cooperatives

A critique of the Vaidyanathan Committee report on revival of cooperative credit institutions, which has made wide-ranging recommendations for an overhaul of this sector.

Twelfth Finance Commission and Minimum Needs

The Twelfth Finance Commission should provide for grants-in-aid for states to ensure universalisation of basic social services within a certain time frame. It should also determine how many such needs can be taken up for grants-in-aid at a time and how much aid can be provided for each objective in a year.

Linking Rivers: Some Elementary Arithmetic

On the basis of the scanty factual information that has been made available and a few assumptions, it is possible to attempt some elementary arithmetic about the cost per unit of water and per watt of power separately for the three components â?? the Peninsular, the Himalayan and the Hydroelectric - of the project to link the country's rivers. The results make one despair that instead of doing the first things that are crying out to be done first in regard to irrigation, people are being fed this pie-in-the-sky.

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