ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Olaf Caroe's Fabrication of the 'McMahon Line'

In the latter half of the 1930s, British officials under the leadership of Olaf Caroe doctored and garbled the records of the 1914 Simla Conference to make them support the assertion that India's north-eastern borderline lay legitimately just where Henry McMahon had tried to unsuccessfully place it. By the end of World War II, Caroe's fabrication had to a large extent been made good--the alignment he named the "McMahon Line" had been established as the de facto British-India north-eastern borderline (falling short only in its leaving Tawang to Tibet). The assertion that this was also the de jure border had apparently solid evidence, documentary and cartographic, to support it. The evidence for its legitimacy was, however, fraudulent, and Caroe's deception was eventually exposed. Yet, Nehru's absolute refusal to negotiate a boundary settlement with China continues to be Indian government policy.

What Is Behind the Chinese 'Incursion' at Daulat Beg Oldie?

Behind the nationalist hysteria which has been whipped up over the Chinese army setting up camp in territory claimed by India in Ladakh lies a long history of self-delusion and aggressive posturing on the border. This article throws a contrary, and sobering, light on India’s latest border scrap.

What Is Behind The Chinese "Incursion" At Daulet Beg Oldi?

Behind the nationalist hysteria which has been whipped up over the Chinese army setting up camp in territory claimed by India in Ladakh, lies a long history of self-delusion and aggressive posturing on the border. This article throws a contrary, and sobering, light on India’s latest border scrap.

India-China Dispute Revisited

There are two components to the India-China border dispute and they are separate, distinct and different. The first dispute was over the north-eastern sector and the second was over Aksai Chin. Jawaharlal Nehru's refusal to submit the dispute to negotiation meant it became diplomatically insoluble and his attempt to make the Indian claims good on the ground through military force challenged China to war. Successor governments have maintained his refusal to submit India's border claims to negotiation and the "talks" in which they have engaged Beijing cannot lead to settlement. But if the Government of India reversed Nehru's approach and agreed to negotiate, settlement could still be reached because each country holds the territory vital to it.

Settlements and Disputes

Except in the case of Vietnam, China has tried to stick to its cooperation strategy of settling boundary problems declared by Zhou Enlai at the Bandung Conference in 1955 and has acted as a responsible and disciplined member of the international community and as an observant of its treaty commitments. Against the backdrop of recent allegations about the intractable border disputes between China and its neighbours, this article traces China's subsequent adherence to or divergence from its earlier approach in resolving territorial disputes and achieving boundary settlements over the succeeding decades.

Henderson Brooks Report: An Introduction

It seems likely now that the Henderson Brooks Report on the debacle in the border war with China, completed in 1963, will never be released. Furthermore, even if one day a stable, confident and relaxed government in New Delhi should, miraculously, appear and decide to publish it, the text would be largely incomprehensible, the context, well known to the authors and therefore not spelled out, being now forgotten. The report would need an introduction and gloss - a first draft of which this essay attempts to provide, drawing upon the author's research in India in the 1960s and material published later.

Hong Kong 1999

Primarily as a consequence of the antagonistic and confrontational strategy the last British governor, Chris Patten, followed in his policy towards Beijing, the political atmosphere in Hong Kong when the colony reverted to Chinese sovereignty in 1997 was envenomed and polarised.

Nirad C Chaudhuri: A Tribute and a Memoire

Arguably Chaudhuri's great theme, threading through almost all his work, was decline - the decline and fall of empire, the stagnation and decline of social systems, the decline of western civilisation under the hooves of his "three horsemen", individualism, nationalism and democracy.

Sino-Indian Border Dispute Reconsidered

The Nehru government sought to decide for itself where India's borders with China should lie and then impose the alignments it had chosen on Beijing, refusing to negotiate them. That meant that unless Beijing surrendered to India's territorial claims to Aksai Chin and areas north of the McMahon Line conflict was inevitable. China's military action in 1962 was reactive and pre-emptive, and that India suffered 'unprovoked aggression' is a selfserving myth. That there has been no settlement of the Sino-Indian borders is the consequence of Nehru's policies, to which successor governments, except Narasimha Rao's, have strictly adhered.

How Chris Patten Framed China

Neville Maxwell There are no grounds for belief that Peking's intentions for Hong Kong are for anything other than the careful implementation of its treaty obligations the observance which alone can consolidate China's standing in the international community.

Sino-British Confrontation over Hong Kong

Hong Kong, one of the most modern cities in the world, is one of its greatest anachronisms. It is the last corner of Asia where Europeans rule, a rock-pool left, brilliant, vital and teeming, by the historic ebb tide which saw the age of European dominance over Asia ending in this century's second half The Germans, the Spanish, the Dutch, the French, the Portuguese, and the British, whose domains in Asia were once greatest of them all, withdrew or were forcefully evicted. But Britain preserved its power undiminished over the tiny but populous patch of China named Hong Kong, and thus the reversion of Hong Kong to China in 1997 will close an epilogue to the age of Europe's Asian dominance.


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