ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Constraints on Growth and Development

N Krishnaji Whatever Happened to Imperialism and Other Essays by Prabhat Patnaik; Tulika, New Delhi, 1995; pp 244, Rs 275. W H AT are the propsects for a rapid economic growth in India? Can we emulate the recent experience of some of the countries in East and South Asia in achieving sustained high rates of growth or are there constraints on the economy which will continue to operate as before and trap us for ever within the limits of the so-called Hindu rate of growth? Is there an alternative strategy of development lor the progressive reduction of poverty, ignorance and disease, an alternative to the current politics of structural adjustment, liberalisation and so on that seem to hold promise because they are supposed to have 'worked' in other countries?

Working Mothers and Child Survival in Rural India-Insights from Spatial Patterns

Working Mothers and Child Survival in Rural India Insights from Spatial Patterns N Krishnaji This paper analyses the levels and gender differentials in child mortality across the rural parts of the Indian states in relation to the work status and work participation rates among women and two other correlates of mortality, viz, fertility and female literacy. Since states are large and some of them contain sub-regions which vary considerably with respect to both agro-economic and cultural factors, the correlations are examined in more detail at the district and sub-regional levels as they are observed in Andhra Pradesh. The paper concludes with a discussion of the main issues.

Family Planning and Fertility

Regulating Reproduction in India's Population: Efforts, Results and Recommendations by K Srinivasan; Sage Publishers, 1995; pp 329, Rs 350. THE Indian population is likely to cross the billion mark by the end of the century. Although the population growth rate has at last begun to show signs of deceleration, it may remain high for many more decades: high enough, according to some plausible projections, to make us the most populous country in the world by the middle of the next century or a little later. That dubious distinction we will attain because in China the deceleration in population growth started much earlier than in India. In this context it is necessary to remember that India was probably the first country to have started a family planning programme. Our experience in the last lour decades or so with the population control programmes therefore requires study, especially to understand why they have not been very successful.

Population and Agricultural Growth-A Study in Inter-Regional Variations

A Study in Inter-Regional Variations N Krishnaji P Satya Sekhar The Indian experience of the two decades, 1961-81, offers some scope for analysis of the interrelationships between the components of population growth and the characteristics of agrarian change. A dramatic improve- ment has taken place during this period in technology and productivity in some parts of the country even as other regions have demonstrably stagnated. Did the prosperous regions experience higher rates of population growth, either through higher rates of natural increase or through immigration? What is the demographic picture of areas of stagnation and decline: Are they marked by high rates of mortality and out-migration? One can ask similar questions about the extent to which population pressure has led to land or labour intensification in areas ex- periencing drastic declines in land-man ratio. This paper is concerned with these Questions.

Food Policy in a Changed Context

N Krishnaji Managing India's Food Economy: Problems and Alternatives by D S Tyagi; Sage Publications, New Delhi, 1990; pp 240, Rs 163. THE focus of this book is on what the author calls the emerging problems associated with the attainment, at the national level, of self-sufficiency in foodgrain production and with the distinct prospects for sizeable surpluses in the coming years. However, he makes repeated references to the past

Agricultural Price Policy-A Survey with Reference to Indian Foodgrain Economy

A Survey with Reference to Indian Foodgrain Economy N Krishnaji Agricultural price policy must be seen as an essential part of a larger 'package' of policies designed to promote rapid growth in a few regions endowed with irrigation facilities and to encourage private investment in the necessary means for the cultivation of the new varieties. Given the highly skewed distribution of land and assets and the marked regional concentration of irrigated areas, the policy package was bound to promote both interand intra- regional inequalities. One can thus perceive a built-in regressive element in the price policy and locate it within the overall policy of promoting growth through various production incentives, a policy not based on sufficient consideration of its distributional consequences.

Land and Labour in India-The Demographic Factor

Land and Labour in India The Demographic Factor N Krishnaji This paper discusses the deteriorating land-man ratio in India and the manner in which demographic factors induce changes in the distribution of land and thereby in the ratio of agricultural labourers to cultivators and speculates on the shape of things to come during the next two or three decades. The author focuses on inter-regional variations both in population growth and agricultural development and also refers briefly to the decisive role the state has played in promoting technological change and exacerbating regional disparities in the productivity of land which, along with the distribution of land, contributes significantly to the relationship between land and labour.

Measuring Tax Potential-A Note on Ninth Finance Commissions Approach

A Note on Ninth Finance Commission's Approach N Krishnaji The Ninth Finance Commission claims to have adopted a normative approach in assessing the tax revenue capacities of the different states and for this purpose the commission has, in its first report covering 1989-90, employed a regression equation fitted to past data to generate estimates of tax potential. This note discusses the regression equation and the manner in which it has been used for making revenue projections and shows that the whole procedure is shot through with defects.

Agricultural Growth, Prices and Rural Poverty-On Dharm Narain s Regression Analysis

On Dharm Narain's Regression Analysis N Krishnaji This note contributes to the discussion on Dharm Narain's unfinished work on the trends in rural poverty which has remained somewhat inconclusive. It examines the statistical artifacts underlying Dharm Narain's regression fits and argues that the empirical relationships are to a large extent implicit in the manner in which poverty estimates are derived, and caused by the highly correlated trends in the different price indices used in defining the variables.

Political Economy of Farm Prices

N Krishnaji Agricultural Price Policy and Income Distribution in India by Alain de Janvry and K Subbarao; Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1986; pp 114, Rs 75.

Poverty and Sex Ratio-Some Data and Speculations

This note is concerned with the question: how are mortality differentials and the imbalance between the sexes related to poverty? In other words, are the differences wider in poor families than in rich families?

Missing the Wood

useful for a developing country like India with a rapidly changing industrial structure. What is disadvantageous today may be advantageous tomorrow provided the proper structures, skills and technologies are built up. Japan has amply demonstrated this. If we do not build up these skills and structures in the name of static efficiency then we only close potential options.

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