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PORTUGAL- Bankruptcy of Eurocommunism

PORTUGAL Bankruptcy of 'Eurocommunism' Mohan Ram FADING posters of General Eanas's successful presidential election campaign mingleincongruously with portraits of Chairman Mao Tse-tung on Lisbon's walls. The political graffiti of the numerous 'ultra'-Left groups and the proliferation of radical newspapers testify to the end of the longest fascist regime in history and the beginning of a Western-style democracy in Portugal. But the provisional revolution staged by the Left-wing Armed Forces Movement (MFA) has all but ended. President Kanas, handsome and remote-looking in his General's uiform, is perhaps the sole symbolic, if ambivalent, link between the MFA and the five-month-old socialist government of Mario Snares which has quietly been swinging to the centre.

Politics of Political Execution

Union to accept the project's entire production. The question of setting up, in the USSR, on compensation basis a pulp and paper plant was also considered. The Indian side offered to supply some of the equipment, including complete plant with a capacity of upto 200 tonnes per day, as well as the structural and other auxiliaries. The Soviet side agreed to consider this proposal, as also production co-operation in manufacture of wood-based products.

LAND- The Sarvodaya Farce

indicates that they are places of shelter for personnel of the revenue department, as most of the employees, specially at the lower levels, are drawn from this department on deputation. This procedure runs counter to the basic principles of unity of command and directness of supervision. Besides, subjected as they have always been to humiliation by these very officials, the tribals look askance at their presence even in welfare institutions: the tribals cannot be blamed if they find it difficult to see these officials as their benefactors.

MISA-Unfettered Misuse

Mohan Ram THE Prime Minister's assurance to Morarji Desai that MISA (Maintenance of Internal Security Act) would not be used against legitimate political activities but principally against "anti- social and anti-national elements" was in response to one of the two demands' cm which he went on his indefinite fast. Morarji's principal demand was the fixing of the date of the elections to the Gujarat assembly, but since he had also expressed some misgivings about the use of MISA, the Prime Minister assured him that the matter would be examined by the Centre in consultation with the State Governments.

THE EMERGENCY-For Ever and Ever

 back below 1,000 crores in 1975-76 (see Tablets 1 and 2). 1975, a year of world recession will be a year in which capacity and modernisation of basic industries will be an even greater priority if the Government of India wishes to sustain an export growth of 10-15 per cent a year to 1980 after the world economy emerges from the 1974-75 recession. Only a limited number of industries can be priorities for capacity expansion, modernisation and cash THE campaign for ending the Emergency, launched on April 6 by the non- CPI Opposition parties, is a disturbing reminder that what had been provided tor in the Constitution to deal with exceptional situations has become a permanent part of our lives. Of the 25 years of the Republic, the sttate of Emergency has been on for over nine years in all And of the little over nine years that Indira Gandhi has been Prime Minister, the Emergency has been in operation for close to six. Since 1962 the country has known only a brief res- pite (1968-1971) from the state of Emergency.

MISA- Pleasure of Indefinite Detention

MISA Pleasure of Indefinite Detention Mohan Ram In its latest judgment involving the Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA) the Supreme Court (in Hardhan Salia vs the Stale of West Bengal and others and Madan Ial Agrawala vs the State of West bengal and others) held on August 21 that none of the provisions of the MISA violated the Constitution. Individual cases in which authority given to officials under the Act had not been properly exercised or- the procedures prescribed had not been correctly followed could, however, be brought to the notice of the courts. The limited parameters of court intervention have thus been defined in the judgment.

Ramaswami Naicker and the Dravidian Movement

Movement Mohan Ram Equating poverty with race, and race with caste, E V Ramaswami Naicker founded the Dravidian movement to fight Aryan 'domination' which to him was synonymous with Brahmin domination and Brahminism. His anti-Brahmin movement had elements of Jyotiba Phule's Satyashodhak movement in Maharashtra and also a secessionist content. Even after Independence, Naicker's movement continued to represent the strong Tamil reaction to Brahminism as also the assertion of Tamil indentity vis-a-vis the rest of India.

The Telengana Peasant Armed Struggle, 1946-51

Over 20 years ago, Acharya Vinoba Bhave launched his bhoodan movement at Pochampalli, a village in Telengana where communists had carried on an armed struggle for five years around an agrarian programme. Bhoodan was to be the sarvodaya answer to the communist challenge on the land problem and was meant to achieve what legislative action was not expected to do.

Five Years after Naxalbari

coarse grains; in many other cases pro- duction has been overestimated and the public distribution system has been substantially dismantled. It will require a great deal of organisational effort and administrative ability to deal with- the situation.

Indian Communists and Foreign Policy

Indian Communists and Foreign Policy Mohan Ram The Communist Party and India's Foreign Policy by Taufik Ahmad Nizami; Associated Publishing House, New Delhi, 1971; pp 292; Rs 36.

India s Trade Prospects in Latin America

November 20, 1971 in terms of dies, jigs, tools, fixtures, and design and drawing office ability, is the most sophisticated in Asia outside Japan and is certainly the lowest in cost. The other essential ingredients of a successful zone could be established, once Government of India is convinced that such zones are worthwhile

Peking and Indian Maoists

Peking and Indian Maoists Mohan Ram PEKING'S year of puzzling silence on the Indian Maoists ended on October 7 when Hsinhua approvingly quoted chunks of an article on "armed struggle" in West Bengal from the CPI(Md,).s clandestine journal Liberation (April -June issue). The last reference to the Indian Maoist movement in the Peking mass media was in October 1970. Radio Peking, reviewing the "flames of revolutionary struggle in South-East Asia" mentioned the CPI- (M-L)'s "peasant armed struggle with agrarian revolution as its centre'' but maintained a studied silence on the party's one-year-old urban guerilla campaign in the slum jungles of Calcutta alter its cadre had abandoned the countryside. The October 1970 reference to the CPI(M-L)'s activity implied disapproval of the "red terror" campaign in the city as also the controversial "annihilation tactic" hr the countryside. For, the accent was on mobilisation and organisation of the peasant masses for guerilla warfare and not mere guerilla squad actions to kill landlords.


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