ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Shelter, Women and Development-Beating a Path towards Women s Participation

Beating a Path towards Women's Participation THIS paper is based on the experience of community organisation work that the Society for Promotion of Area Resource Centres (SPARC) has been involved with since its formation in 1984.

Bombay s Pavement-Dwellers-Continuing Torment.pdf

Bombay's Pavement-Dwellers Continuing Torment Meera Bapat IN July 1985, the Supreme Court delivered a perplexing judgment on the case involving pavement-dwellers. A writ petition (No 46104612 of 1981) had been filed in the Supreme Court challenging the large-scale demolitions by the Bombay Municipal Corporation in 1981 of huts on pavements in central areas of Bombay. The judgment on the writ petition endorses the argument made on behalf of pavement-dwellers that if they are evicted from their dwellings they will be deprived of their livelihood and therefore their right to life will be violated, as the right livelihood is included in the right to life conferred by Article 21. And yet the judgment permits the removal of pavement-dwellings without directing the municipal corporation to provide a viable alternative for the people so that their right to life is upheld. The judgment argues that the Constitution does not put an absolute embargo on the deprivation of life or personal liberty; in the instant case the taw which allows deprivation of the right conferred by Article 21 is the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act, 1988, and relevant sections in it which empower the municipal authorities to clear encroachments on pavements. The judgment goes on to state that those pavement-dwellers who were censured by the state government in 1976 should be given, though not as a condition precedent to their removal, alternative pitches (in a distant suburb of Bombay). The Supreme Court also directs the municipal corporation to withhold demolitions until the end of the monsoon (October 31) to save pavement-dwellers additional suffering that may be caused by being rendered homeless in the rain. It was feared that large-scale demolitions of huts erected on pavements in different parts of Bombay would begin soon after the stipulated date. This did not occur (owing as much to intensive work of mobilising pavement-dwellers done by voluntary organisations as to a play of diverse forces in local politics). What has been happening instead with frequent regularity is the demolition of a few huts at a time along short stretches of roads and streets. These demolitions have rarely been reported in the press.

Struggle and Survival of Poor Metropolitan Households-A Longitudinal Study in Pune 1976 to 1988

Struggle and Survival of Poor Metropolitan Households A Longitudinal Study in Pune: 1976 to 1988 Meera Bapat Nigel Crook In the early 1970s families fleeing from the Marathwada drought arrived in Pune and engaged in a struggle for survival

Enumeration with People s Participation

which is within China's own sphere" even rejecting the Indo-Tibetan Agreement of 1914 through which India held rights regarding Tibet's status. The Chinese had already invaded Tibet but the Indian government kept on talking of Tibetan autonomy within China. The best way it could do this was by not recognising the previous (British-India) treaty in which Indian rights were recognised. Not only did the Indians refuse to support their own interests in Tibet but they also refused to support the Tibetan appeal in the United Nations sponsored by El Salvador.

Allocation of Urban Space Rhetoric and Reality-Evidence from Recent Jurisprudence

Allocation of Urban Space: Rhetoric and Reality Evidence from Recent Jurisprudence Meera Bapat FORMAL Town Planning as we know it today was introduced by the British in India three-quarters of a century ago. During these years the basic tenets of Town Planning have undergone very little change. As towns and cities began to grow rapidly, however, problems started to become acute in a number of areas of urban life. New legislation was introduced to support the existing Town Planning laws in order to deal with some of the critical problems. And yet none of these efforts have brought relief in the ever worsening urban situation. Housing which is one of the most vivid indicators of life in cities is characterised by increasing polarisation in living conditions of the rich and the poor. In order to explain this pattern of urban development it is necessary to review the existing legislation which impinges on the question of access to homing; it is also essential to examine its implementation and interpretation. This will serve as a guide to an effective design of a People's Bill of Housing Rights. I intend to do this by using examples from Maharashtra. I will review legislation pertaining to Town Planning and housing, and analyse some recent cases of public interest litigation which throw light on the underlying processes which lead to this iniquitous development.

Critical Evaluation or Toeing Official Line-Report on a Rehabilitation Project

The Pune Municipal Corporation is executing a large squatter rehabilitation project involving the shifting of 10,600 families living in seven shanty settlements. A government-sponsored evaluation report has claimed that the project provides an opportunity to low-income families to shift voluntarily from a large squatter area to a planned site. The project has been acclaimed as a 'new formula' which 'throws light on the possible elements of a new, appropriate urban development management system'. This paper takes a critical look at the rehabilita tion project and the claims made on its behalf in the official evaluation report.

Towards Understanding Cities and Urban Systems

Towards Understanding Cities and Urban Systems IN this study of the urban phenomena, the authors have made a long journey through the history of civilisations. They have explored the nature of cities and urban systems by making a comparative analysis based on case studies of historical 'pre-modern' civilisations

New Palliatives for Old-Interim Report of National Commission on Urbanisation

New Palliatives for Old? Interim Report of National Commission on Urbanisation THE ministry of urban development, government of India, recently released the first interim report of the National Commission on Urbanisation. During the period of about a year the commission will bring out more such documents before preparing the final recommendations to be published in early 1988. As the report states, it seeks to examine some of the main issues involved in the urbanisation process and identifies those steps that can be undertaken immediately.

Promoting Equitable and Balanced Development Potential of Secondary Cities

Promoting Equitable and Balanced Development Potential of Secondary Cities Meera Bapat Secondary Cities in Developing Countries: Policies for Diffusing Urbanisation by Dennis A Rondinelli; Sage Library of Social Research, Vol 145, Sage Publications, Baverli Hills, 1983; pp 288, $ 28.00.

Development towards a Divided Society

'Development' towards a Divided Society Lahore has grown from a provincial capital of half a million people to a bustling metropolis of 3 million people in 1981. Contrary to general belief, the growth has been due more to natural increase than to in-migration. (This is being increasingly acknowledged in the context of Indian cities). The growth of the population is accompanied by considerable physical development. The development has two distinct metaphors; modern- western and indigenous

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