ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Manoj PandaSubscribe to Manoj Panda

Social Welfare and Household Consumption Expenditure in India - 2004-05 to 2011-12

This paper uses a modification of the well-known statistical concept of the Lorenz curve - the Generalised Lorenz curve - and its associated social welfare properties to measure changes in well-being of households in India during the last decade using the National Sample Survey data on household consumption expenditure for 2004-05, 2009-10 and 2011-12. The paper shows that at the all-India level, there has been an unambiguous fall in poverty during these years. This pattern is also observed in most (but not all) states. It also compares the rate of growth of per capita consumption expenditure of the bottom four deciles and that of the population as a whole. The scatter diagram of the rates of growth for these deciles and of average consumption shows an upward trend, providing some indication that the trickle-down hypothesis may have worked.

Employment Guarantee for Rural India

A report of a round-table discussion held in Mumbai in November on the proposed employment guarantee programme.

Evaluating Quality of Budgets with a Composite Index

How are budgets to be judged? Judgments are often made from specific viewpoints. However, focusing on a single criterion such as the fiscal or the revenue deficit is unsatisfactory, as it does not tell us the manner in which the fiscal imbalance is sought to be corrected. We propose a composite index of quality of the budget that takes into account composition of revenue and of revenue and capital expenditure and degree of fiscal prudence.

Strategies for Agricultural Liberalisation-Consequences for Growth, Welfare and Distribution

This note summarises the results of a recently completed study which examined the impacts of trade liberalisation, agricultural input subsidy reductions and safety net programmes for India with an applied general equilibrium model with nine agricultural sectors, one non-tradeable non-agriculture sector and one tradeable non-agriculture sector and with five rural and five urban income classes. The study demonstrates the importance of accounting for large country effects in rice trade and estimates the optimal tariff/quota for rice exports for India which is found to be just half a million tonnes of net export of rice. The results show that non-agricultural trade liberalisation is even more important for agriculture than even agricultural trade liberalisation, both of which help accelerate growth The study concludes that a policy package involving trade liberalisation with moderate residual taiffas permitted under GATT and agricultural inputs subsidies removal accompanied by targeted safety net programmes along with stepped up investment in irrigation with the expected additional foreign inflows materialising, produces a scenario that is superior from the point of growth, welfare and distribution and that this can be financed without raising taxes.
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