ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

M J BhendeSubscribe to M J Bhende

A Land-Based Agricultural Presumptive Tax Designed for Levy by Panchayats

Designed for Levy by Panchayats Indira Rajaraman M J Bhende With economic reform and the dismantling of the structure of implicit taxation of agriculture through imported- protected industrialisation, accompanied by partially-compensating input subsidies, the case for an explicit tax on agriculture resurfaces with, however, a new emphasis on retention within the sector of resources so raised for infrastructure development and productivity-enhancing land improvements. This paper designs a crop-specific presumptive levy to supplement the land revenue, and presents the results of a field survey in northern Karnataka covering three crops as a prototype of the kind of exercise necessary.

EGS and the Poor-Evidence from Longitudinal Village Studies

Evidence from Longitudinal Village Studies M J Bhende T S Walker S S Lieberman J V Venkataram The Employment Guarantee Scheme (ECS) in Maharashtra is one of the most acclaimed poverty alleviation schemes providing 100 million person-days of employment in a typical year. This paper attempts to analyse the role of EGS in augmenting'the wage income of rural households, its performance in terms of targeting the poor from the non-poor and also its relationship with farm employment.

Credit Markets in Rural South India

M J Bhende This study analyses aspects of rural financial markets in three villages of three agroclimatic zones of peninsular South India. In the Andhra Pradesh village private moneylenders are an important source of credit, whereas in the Maharashtra village co-operative societies and land development banks play an important role. Institutional credit is concentrated in the richer households having large farm and family size, and headed by more educated, older heads. On the other hand, those households who farmed more land but were less educated, and had fewer livestock and more irrigated area relied more heavily on informal credit. Borrowers usually succeed in diverting credit from the stipulated purpose to others. The largest defaulters are those households who have borrowed most from institutional sources. Relatively, households with larger families and higher dependencv ratios are more care to default.
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