ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By M H Suryanarayana

A Perspective on Growth and Distributional Outcomes in Uttarakhand

How far has Uttarakhand been successful in realising the pursuit of economic growth to improve the standard of living of the population, in general, and in mainstreaming the different social groups both within and without as a state in a federation? The measures of general standard of living and mainstreaming of the marginalised are quantified using the National Sample Survey cross-sectional estimates of household private consumption for Uttarakhand, juxtaposed with those for its parent state of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and the national context of India for 2004–05 and 2011–12. Uttarakhand seems to have done well in realising the goals in the national context, but it has a long way to go in mainstreaming the marginalised social groups in both rural and urban sectors within the state.

Intra-State Economic Disparities: Karnataka and Maharashtra

This study addresses issues related to definition, dimension, and measure of economic disparities from the perspective of the finance commission. It illustrates concepts and measures within the Kuznets framework for Karnataka and Maharashtra. Though the two states are better off than the nation as a whole in terms of mean-based estimates of average income, they have pronounced inter-regional disparities, interpersonal inequalities and intra-regional deprivations. Broad-based and inclusion measures are generally higher in poor backward regions and vice versa, implying broad-based backwardness and inclusion in deprivation. Such a scenario sets limits on the potential for resource mobilisation and makes a case for investment strategies that promote broad-based inclusive growth across all regions at the state level.

What Is Exclusive About 'Inclusive Growth'?

Inclusive growth is the new mantra of national and international agencies, but what does it mean and how does one measure inclusion or the lack of it? In contrast to policy documents that discuss inclusive growth in loose terms, this paper makes an attempt to define the concept and aims to develop measures of inclusion. Given the methodological inadequacies of verifying a broad-based growth process in terms of mean-based averages of income and absolute-norm based measures of deprivation, the study proposes order-based averages for verifying the presence of broad-based growth and extent of inclusion of the poor in terms of the consumer expenditure distribution. In addition, to facilitate verification and comparison of both inter- and intra-group inclusion in a plural society, normalised measures with reference to both mainstream/overall and subgroup averages are worked out. The tentative estimates indicate that the growth process between 1993-94 and 2004-05 bypassed the majority and was not inclusive. At the national level, the inclusion coefficient is higher for the rural sector than for the urban. The association between median consumption and the inclusion coefficient across states is weak, which would also imply that there is no cross-sectional evidence to believe that growth in India has been inclusive.

Agflation and the Public Distribution System

The demand for "universalisation" of the public distribution system during a period of rising prices is not relevant since, more than four-fifths of households in rural areas and two-thirds in urban centres are already covered by it. Yet, a very small proportion of rural/urban households actually make purchases of either rice or wheat from the PDS; an insignificant amount of consumption is met by ration shop purchases. The pattern is somewhat better for below the poverty line households with ration cards. What all this shows is that the issue is not universalisation but improved functioning, greater efficiency and BPL-friendliness of the PDS.