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Economic Reforms and Poverty

In the context of the ongoing debate in India about the possible impact of the economic reforms since July 1991 on poverty, this paper provides the available evidence from the National Sample Surveys conducted during 1991 (July- December) and 1992 (January-December). Contrary to the a priori expectations, there was a sharp increase in rural poverty whereas only a moderate rise took place in urban poverty. Based on the examination of the factors governing rural and urban poverty and the supplementary empirical evidence, the paper reaches the conclusion that the economic reforms-related decisions contributed indirectly rather than being the only or the major cause of the sharp acceleration of rural poverty during the period under consideration.

Declining Incidence of Poverty in the 1980s-Evidence versus Artefacts

Declining Incidence of Poverty in the 1980s Evidence versus Artefacts B S Minhas L R Jain S D Tendulkar By constructing appropriate cost of living indices, which allow for the observed variations in consumption patterns and prices across states, the state-specific rural and urban poverty norms as well as the corresponding estimates of the incidence of poverty in 20 states and all-India in 1987-88 are presented, A set of criteria for ranking of states according to poverty alleviation performance is suggested. However, the reported numerical exercise in ranking is taken to reflect only a descriptive monitoring of the observed performance of different states between 1970-71 and 1987-88, without any pretensions to the analysis of the underlying causes of inter-state differences in performance on the poverty front.

PERSPECTIVES

Writing about Hindu-Muslim Riots in India Today Gyanendra Pandey The dominant nationalist historiography that insists on the totalising standpoint of a seamless nationalism needs to be challenged not only because of its interested use of categories such as 'national' and 'secular' but also because of its privileging of the so-called 'general' over the particular, the larger over the smaller, the 'mainstream' over the 'marginal

Rural Poverty and Its Alleviation in India-A Critical Scrutiny

Rural Poverty and Its Alleviation in India A Critical Scrutiny Suresh D Tendulkar L R Jain IN Section II of their paper [6], Kakwani- Subbarao (K-S for short hereafter) examine the 'trends in inequality and poverty' using the four time-points of National Sample Survey, namely, 1972-73 (27th round), 1973-74 (28th round), 1977-78 (32nd round) and 1983 (38th round). The survey periods covered by these rounds are given in column (2) of Table 1. Their major conclusion is as follows:

Dimensions of Rural Poverty An Inter-Regional Profile

Inter-Regional Profile L R Jain K Sundaram S D Tendulkar This study considers six inter-related dimensions of poverty and seeks to fa) provide region-level estimates for all the six variables; (b) measure and analyse inter-regional disparities in the indicators of poverty; (c) examine the spatial distribution of regions by reference to the quartile-wise ranking along each of the dimensions of poverty; (d) identify spatial patterns of contiguity by mapping; and (e) analyse the inter-relations among the chosen indicators by means of bivariate quartile-wise cross-tabulation.

Projections of Consumption-Rural Urban India 1970-71 and 1975-76

Rural/Urban India: 1970-71 and 1975-76 N S Iyengar L R Jain Among the basic objectives of Indian planners are a) achievement of a significant increase in the employment opportunities in the coming years, and b) promotion of a social order which affords equality of opportunity and which at the same time prevents excessive disparity in income and wealth.
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