ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Agricultural Labourers in Eastern UP

Kripa Shankar A small survey of agricultural labour households in three villages of eastern UP throws interesting light on their levels and sources of income, consumption and indebtedness.

Water Market in Eastern UP

Kripa Shankar With the rapid proliferation of private tube-wells, an extensive water market has developed in UP, as tube-well owners depend on selling of water on account of the smallness of their own holdings. A study of the water market in some villages of Allahabad district.

Integrated Rural Development Programme in Eastern UP

Programme in Eastern UP Kripa Shankar Official evaluation and other studies of IRDP show that a very small percentage of the intended beneficiaries have succeeded in deriving any real benefit In all probability the successful cases are those who belong to the better off categories and who are really not eligible for the scheme WHEN the Integrated Rural Development Programme was launched with great fanfare it was thought that something spectacular was going to happen in rural India. But it turned out to be a miserable scheme of giving loans to the poor with an element of subsidy for some small asset like a buffalo. In the beginning the poor were not even aware of it and better-off farmers got the buffaloes in the name of their servants who were just asked to affix their signature/thumb impression on the application form. There were cases when corrupt lower functionaries at the block level misappropriated the loan on the basis of fake applications. When the racket assumed serious proportions it became mandatory to affix a photograph of the applicant but this did not end the mischief In rural areas there are indigent persons who need small sums to meet their daily requirements or to repay small consumption loans. A small amount used to be paid to them for signing the application form; the loan amount would be withdrawn; the subsidy, usually 331/3 per cent of the loan, would be pocketed and the rest paid back to the bank. Thus targets were fulfilled and the recovery was cent per cent as also speedy and the corrupt village development officer (VDO) would get approbation for overfulfilment of targets and more importantly for quick recovery of loans. Incidentally, VDOs were previously known as 'gram sewaks', i.e, village servants. They resented being called 'gram sewaks' and considered it derogatory. They agitated for a change in their designation and now they are known as village development officers. One can understand the commitment of such functionaries who have descended on the rural areas.

Politics of Land Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh Kripa Shankar WHEN zamindan was abolished roughly 90 lakh acres of land was vested in the 'gaon sabha' in UP. The Zamindari Abolition Committee of UP headed by G B Pant was opposed to any form of land redistribution despite the fact that it was aware of the huge concentration in land. The committee had noted that "a bare 1.49 per cent of the bigger landlords own nearly 57.77 per cent of the land"; that the 'sir' and 'khudhakast' land of zamindars alone accounted for one-fourth of the agricultural land in the State and that "top 804 zamindars own anything between one-fifth and one-fourth of the province''. Still the committee noted that '', . .we do not think that the results achieved would be commensurate with the discontent and hardship resulting from it. We, therefore, recommend that no limits be placed on the maximum area held in cultivation!' The committee observed that land distribution would "increase the difficulty of zamindars in adjusting them to changed condition", As if the committee did not have the interest of landless labourers in mind it opposed redistribution on the strange logic that the "dismemberment of large holdings would have the result of displacing large number of agricultural labourers". The committee had also noted that during the depression period on an average peasants were evicted from an area of 2.5 lakh acres annually which in later period came down to about two lakh acres per annum on an average. The 'sir' and 'khudhakast' land of zamindars totalling 74 lakh acres was cultivated by tenants.

Land Ownership, Asset Structure, and Income Distributon in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

Distributon in Eastern Uttar Pradesh THE study is based on primary data collected in sample villages in eastern UP on pattern of land ownership, asset structure and income distribution. Three villages were randomly selected, one from a relatively agriculturally developed district (Jaunpur), another from agriculturally depressed district (Gonda), and the third one from a district which stands in between the two (Azamgarh). All the households of the three villages formed the universe of the study. The heads of the households were canvassed through a structured questionnaire. The sample consisted of 390 households; the reference year was the agriculture year 1983-84, which was agriculturally a very good year. The results are presented below, which broadly indicate the transformation process that is taking place in this regard.

UTTAR PRADESH-Private Tubewells Promote Growth

Private Tubewells Promote Growth Kripa Shankar OF LATE there has been a growth spurt on the agricultural front in UP especially in the eastern region. Although the developmental bureaucracy wants to take credit for it, it is in fact the proliferation of private tubewells among marginal and small farmers which has spearheaded this growth and is sustaining it. As late as 1981 there were five lakh private tubewells and seven lakh pumping sets in UP; by 1988 their numbers had risen to eight lakh and 15 lakh respectively

Land Transfers in Uttar Pradesh

LAND alienation in a predominantly agrarian economy characterised by highly skewed distribution of land, adverse land man ratio and vast landlessness has an important bearing on the dynamics of rural transformation. The object of this study has been to determine the magnitude of land transfers in the state of UP and to delineate the working of the land market in the context of various land reform measures enacted in the state as well as the introduction of the new agricultural technology. The study is confined to only such transfers which were duly registered with the government and covers the post-zamindari abolition period till 1982-83. The sample consists of all households which sold or purchased any land during this period of roughly 30 years in the selected 19 Nyaya panchayats spread over 19 districts of the state

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