ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By K Srinivasan

Quality of Data in NFHS-4 Compared to Earlier Rounds

As the quality of data from the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey is likely to be affected both by the overstretching of the number of questions administered as well as the increased involvement of commercial agencies for data collection, rethinking both these aspects of survey management is the need of the hour.

 

Family Welfare Programme in India: Expenditure vs Performance

Since the launch of the reproductive and child health policy regime in 1998-99, there has been a massive rise in government expenditure on family welfare programmes in India. This paper makes a systematic effort to assess the performance of the family welfare programmes vis-à-vis the trends in expenditure. The trends in key performance indicators for India and selected states reveal that progress has been slow and limited in the post-rch policy regime. Child immunisation coverage has decelerated, and the increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate and institutional delivery coverage have stalled. Consequently, the pace of reduction in the total fertility rate and infant mortality rate has slowed. Overall, the progress in key programme indicators is found to be incommensurate with rising expenditure.

Household Deprivation and Its Linkages with Reproductive Health Utilisation

The household deprivation scores, based on the availability of some basic amenities to a household and the presence of a literate adult member, have been applied to data sets of the three National Family Health Surveys to study the trends in deprivation levels over 1992-2006 and the correlates of selected reproductive and child heath parameters with household deprivation levels. It is found that the proportion of households classified as "deprived" on the basis of the hds has recorded a secular declining trend over this period and that the quantum of decline in the proportions of the deprived is strongly associated with improvements in reproductive and child health parameters. Analysis of the data on malnourishment of children reveals that the availability of some basic amenities at the household level makes a significant contribution to children's growth and prevention of malnutrition.

Reviewing Reproductive and Child Health Programmes in India

Since the early 1990s, "decentralisation" and "integration" seem to be the buzz words underlying the implementation of various social development programmes in India, especially the reproductive and child health programme. Analysis reveals that the state-level effects of various RCH services are significantly higher than those at the district level. The pace of annual progress after 1998 in many RCH indicators is slower than before and a few indicators (e g, child-immunisation) have worsened, despite the expenditure on the programme being doubled. Decentralisation and integration of basic healthcare services may not be effective unless monitored centrally and backed by full time health (medical/paramedical) professionals at the delivery level.

Trends in Sex Ratio

Revisit Needed K SRINIVASAN Krishnaji in a recent article (EPW, April 1, 2000) has argued that the declines in the sex ratios of the population of the country between 1981 and 1991 Censuses from 934 to 927 (females per 1,000 population) can be largely attributed to increased female foeticide and to discriminatory practices in society which contribute to higher mortality for women. He rules out the possibility of larger underenumeration of women in the 1991 Census quoting the studies by Ashok Mitra and Pravin Visaria based on the 1961 and 1971 Censuses which are not relevant for the analysis of the situation in the 1981 and 1991 Censuses. He has criticised my earlier hypothesis (1994) that there have been substantial omission of women in the country as a whole in the 1991 Census which was based on unacceptably poor sex ratios observed in some of the districts in the country which were politically more tense before the 1991 Census. I also argued that very low ratios (around 800 in some districts) could not have come about because of increased female foeticide, differential mortality or migration.