ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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The Budget: A Quick Look through a 'Gender Lens'

This paper examines the union budget 2001-2002 with a focus on its implications for women's empowerment. Changes in patterns of allocations to various women-specific schemes as well as to schemes of indirect benefit to women have been analysed. This preliminary analysis suggests that the standard perception of women's roles continues to be as mothers and caregivers, and has undergone little change. Investment priorities seem to reinforce this image, and do not reflect a commitment to women's empowerment.

Gender-Related Development Index for Indian States-Methodological Issues

This paper draws attention to the problems associated with the construction of a GDI at the sub-national level in developing countries using data for 15 Indian states. The analysis shows that a variety of rankings of gender-relaxed income attainment and the GDI can be obtained for Indian states using various measures of workforce participation rates and wage rates. The sharp changes in ranks which may be obtained with different sets of data show that there is need for exercising caution while deriving policy measures based on these ranks.

The Budget and Structural Adjustment with a Human Face

The structural adjustment programme in the country is being implemented against a background of incomplete structural transformation, low level of human development and distorted patterns of expenditure in education and health. Complicating the issue further is the fact that the bulk of the expenditure on social sectors is incurred by the state governments which have pursued human development strategies with varying degrees of intensity. Given such dismal initial conditions and the low rate of growth of the economy, the pursuit of structural adjustment with a human face depends on the degree of political commitment at both the centre and the state levels.

Identification of Levels of Development-Case of Maharashtra

Case of Maharashtra K Seeta Prabhu P C Sarker The study arrives at an unambiguous classification of the sectoral as well as aggregate levels of development of the districts of Maharashtra for 1985-86 using three different techniques, viz. ranking, indexing and principal components. The final classification of districts for the aggregate level of development was obtained using Wald's criterion. In the final classification, 11 districts were identified as being highly developed, while three districts were considered as belonging to the middle level of development The remaining 15 districts were classified as underdeveloped.

Agricultural Innovations in India

K Seeta Prabhu Diffusion of Agricultural Innovations in India by Satadal Dasgupta; Wiley Eastern, New Delhi, 1989; pp 193, Rs 150. A SUBSTANTIAL increase in the productivity of the agricultural sector in India depends on the adoption of yield-increasing innovations by a majority of farmers. The country's experience with respect to the H YV technology introduced in the mid-60s was rather disappointing. The uneven diffusion of this technology led to a spate of studies analysing the factors affecting the adoption of agricultural innovations in the country. Barring a few exceptions, most of the studies were conducted at the micro level and generally examined the adoption behaviour of farmers in one or two villages. Given the tremendous variation in the social, cultural and agronomic factors across the country, it has been difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding the adoption behaviour of Indian farmers from these scattered studies. The book under review attempts to provide an integrated picture of the findings of the diffusion studies conducted in India and fulfils a long-felt need of researchers working in the field.

Levels of Development and Migration

Levels of Development and Migration K Sita K Seeta Prabhu VIDWANS (Discussion EPW, June 3) in his comments has raised a number of queries regarding the analysis and conclusions of our paper (EPW, January 7). Some of the points made by him are as follows:

Levels of Development and Migration-Case of South Konkan

South Konkan, a traditional area oj out-migration and low econometric development exhibits considerable intra- regional variations which deserve a closer study. This paper attempts to identify intra-regional variations in develop ment and the major areas of out-migration, and explores the relationship between the levels of development and migration.

Rural Credit Mystery of the Missing Households

Rural Credit: Mystery of the Missing Households K Seeta Prabhu Avadhoot Nadkarni C V Achuthan The substantial decline in the proportion as well as in the absolute number of households reporting indebtedness between 1971 and 1981 at both the all-India level and the states level, as revealed by the All-India Debt and Investment Survey, 1981-82, is indeed an intriguing development. This is particularly so as the decline has occurred during a period which has witnessed a phenomenal expansion in the institutional credit network in the rual areas. This paper is an attempt at understanding this issue in some detail.

Crop Insurance-The International Experience

The papers in the volume are arranged into three parts for convenience of analysis. The first part discusses issues concerning the demand for insurance while the second is devoted to an analysis of implications of crop insurance for public policy. In the third part details of the experience of the US, Japan and Brazil with respect to crop insurance are presented along with a discussion on the financial and organisational issues concerning the implementation of such schemes. In view of the importance of the issues raised a detailed discussion of the contents of the volume is presented below.

The Pesticides Dilemma

groups rather than by laws if they are to succeed. How this is to be achieved remains an open question. One possibility would be to mobilise workers' and consumers' organisations, but unfortunately they seem to be stuck in their own ruts. Many of the issues taken up by consumers' movements in India relate to issues and grievances of the middle and upper classes, perhaps because they are more articulate. Issues of the poor, like corruption in IRDP, pollution of drinking water in villages, etc, need to be take up and fought more vigorously. In the same manner, trade unions must stay away from the trap that pits them against workers in the informal sector or against rural landless labourers. Once such consciousness grows, these organisations may be able to take up a watchdog role effectively.

Crop-Credit Insurance Some Disturbing Features

K Seeta Prabhu Saroja Ramackandran The new Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme introduced in the country in 1985 is based on the area approach and covers five crops, rice, wheat, millets, oilseeds and pulses. It is restricted to borrowers of crop loans from co-operative credit societies, commercial banks and Regional Rural Banks. The article analyses the implications of the linkages of the new Scheme with the institutional credit system for agriculture and highlights the implications of the uniform and low rates of premia being charged under the Scheme.
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