ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By K S James

Avoidable Controversy on Multidimensional Poverty

Given three alternate approaches to projecting poverty figures— (i) ignoring the impact of COVID-19, (ii) including it fully, and (iii) excluding only the peak impact—NITI Aayog choosing the data set that excludes the peak months of COVID-19 in 2020, as has been done in the National Family Health Survey-5, seems appropriate. However, any attempt to explain poverty reduction in a year in terms of developments or programmatic interventions in that year is unlikely to go unchallenged.



Population, Health Status, and the Sustainable Development Goals

The fact sheets with key results of the National Family Health Survey-5, conducted in 2019–21, from 36 states/union territories were released recently by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. In this article, the authors highlight the emerging population and health issues from the NFHS-5 to monitor the country’s progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 and the key policy issues to strengthen the population and health programmes in the country.


Demographic and Health Diversity in the Era of SDGs

Despite the progress achieved in demographic and health-related indicators, achieving targets in the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 remains a demanding task. This study acts as a perfect benchmark for monitoring several demographics and health-related indicators in the era of the SDGs. There is a need to advance the right sources of data and cutting-edge tools for measuring and monitoring progress. The efforts to reduce regional disparities in demographic and health-related indicators are hindered by the lack of adequate funding to the programmes and the absence of reliable micro-level evidence-based policy.


Economic Independence and Social Security among India’s Elderly

Given that a majority of India’s elderly population lacks adequate social security or old-age pension, India needs a robust social security system that addresses decisive ageing challenges such as decent living arrangements, economic independence and social support to ensure active ageing. India needs to facilitate interstate convergence in old-age pensions under social security schemes for the elderly population, and revisit and re-evaluate existing multisectoral policy initiatives aimed towards their welfare.

Levels and Trends in Caesarean Births: Cause for Concern?

A consistent increase has been observed in the rate of Caesarean section deliveries in most of the developed countries and in many developing countries, including India, over the last few decades. An analysis of the National Family Health Survey data shows that the rate of this form of delivery in states like Kerala, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu is alarmingly high. States with marked demographic transition as well as high institutionalised births have an infl ated rate of c-section deliveries.

Third National Family Health Survey in India: Issues, Problems and Prospects

The three rounds of the National Family Health Survey have generated vast amounts of data, which unfortunately have been subject to only limited critical examination by Indian research scholars, though the opposite is the case with scholars outside India. The nfhs-3, which was conducted in 2005-06, covered many more areas than the previous surveys and collected information in new and sensitive areas like sexual behaviour. However, there are questions about the quality of data thrown up by nfhs-3. Information on some indicators such as fertility and infant mortality remains of reasonably good quality, but the data on nutrition, immunisation, and gender violence is suspect. There have been three of these very large surveys since 1992-93, and it is perhaps time to reflect on the experience so far and plan for the next survey a decade after nfhs-3 which would be five years after the 2011 Census.

Glorifying Malthus: Current Debate on 'Demographic Dividend' in India

Demographic factors have reappeared in the economic development debate with the emergence of the concept of the "demographic dividend". With many developing countries experiencing a rapid decline in fertility, there has been overwhelming optimism that a demographic bonus will take these countries to greater economic heights. At the same time, there are pessimists doubting the ability of these countries to take advantage of the demographic dividend. This paper looks at the concept critically in the context of India. It tries to empirically estimate the contribution of the age structure change to economic growth in the country through a two-stage least square method. The empirical analysis clearly exhibits a powerful positive impact of the boom in the working age group population on economic growth. This is despite the fact that the educational achievements and health conditions of the people are far from desirable and employment creation is well below the required level.